Tuesday, 6 October 2015

Analysis: I Love Me - I Kill Me: From W. Somerset Maugham to James Ward Byrkit

The Treasure by W. Somerset Maugham
"The Best Ever" by W. Somerset Maugham

This post is going to be a little bit different from the habitual. Instead of focussing on W. Somerset Maugham's works or books that talk about Maugham, it is about thoughts triggered by one of his stories, "The Treasure," which I analysed in a previous post.

"The Treasure" was written as "The Best Ever" in 1933. In it, Maugham portrays a self-absorbed man. Reading it as a modern fairy tale, I bring out the narcissism of Richard Harenger, who "lost" his head when he saw in the mirror how well he looked on the dance floor with his parlourmaid Pritchard, the treasure, the element that makes his life run like clockwork. The love (though momentary) is reflective, directed to himself, of how generous he was to Pritchard, who is a reflection of him down to her name.

This is a very interesting observation made by Maugham back in the 1930s. Although the story was meant to be a joke, Maugham's penetrating insight is staggering when we look back.

Recently I happened to watch a series of movies that dwell on the same theme, self-love, in a way very similar to Maugham's exploration, externalizing the self, projecting the self, but no longer onto another person. It is interesting to observe the shifts of direction from narcissistic love to overt fear.

Some movies are better than the others, some are mainstream with the obliged uplifting endings, some with blatant brutality that blow your mind.

The projection of the self borders on three elements: time travel, cloning, and parallel universe. I will talk about the movies in chronological order so we can see how our collective consciousness changes over the years.

This isn't meant to be an exhaustive list; the following movies are just the ones that I came across recently within a short period of time, which I think illustrate the shift of our narcissistic longings.

Predestination (2014): "I Miss You Dreadfully"

Ben King ©2014 - Predestination Ethan Hawke
Ben King ©2014, Ethan Hawke in Predestination
The Spierig Brothers (dirs.), Ethan Hawke, Sarah Snook

This certainly has become one of my all time favourites. Based on Robert A. Heinlein's short story "'–All You Zombies–'." The story itself is beyond the paradox of time travel, which we are well-trained in its gymnastics since Back to the Future. Predestination is much more than that.

I put this as chronologically first, although it is the most recent, because the story was conceived in 1958, and the movie is faithful to the main ideas.

It is about a wo/man who becomes a time agent. Wo/man because s/he was born a girl, but eventually became a man after giving birth, when her doctors discovered that she was a hermaphrodite. With her female reproductive organs all messed up, they changed her into a man.

The intriguing idea is that time travel allows him, after the operation and after being contracted as a time agent, to go back in time and meet herself.

Again, this is nothing new, but what happens when we meet ourselves?

This is a question that isn't always answered in other time travel narratives. We are given to the superstition that we will die, or it will disrupt the space-time continuum (even the Penguins of Madagascar know that). Or perhaps the idea is simply too frightening, because at the back of our minds we know what will happen.

Sarah Snook - Predestination
Sarah Snook in Predestination

Like Narcissus, we will fall in love.

No one is going to understand ourselves better than ourselves, no one is going to be as pleasing.

Only unlike Narcissus, the copy is as real as the original, with flesh and blood and a palpitating heart. Who is the original anyway? Which fragment of time comes first?

Although by then the character already comes to the realization that the girl in front of him is her, he can't help it and makes herself pregnant.

The child in turn is her, taken by him from another segment of time, and then backward in time to the orphanage where she grew up.

He is the father, the mother, and the child. Nothing is more self-sufficient, nothing is more ideal in his world, nothing is more holy.

It is quite an experience to see this uncompromising exploration of the self, no toning down, no easing the blow.

While Predestination offers no relief from being claustrophobically trapped in time, the unavoidable inevitability, and the eternal return, the very idea of time travel, cloning, and parallel universe hinges on the hope for a second opportunity to do something better, to salvage our errors, the what if...

The Thirteenth Floor (1999) – A Better Me

Josef Rusnak - Thirteenth Floor
The Thirteenth Floor
Josef Rusnak (dir.), Craig Bierko, Gretchen Mol, Armin Mueller-Stahl
The Thirteenth Floor (1999) is based on the novel Simulacron-3 (1964) by Daniel F. Galouye. I haven't read the novel so I can't say how faithful the movie is to the original.

The Thirteenth Floor is about layers of simulated worlds. The interesting point is how we model or create a new world: we duplicate ourselves, our world. (It may seem a want of imagination; when our ancestors found a new place across the ocean, what did they call it? New England, Cordoba, London, Toledo.) We inject our own image into the new simulated beings. However, once they are separated from us, they become something outside, something unfamiliar. The self becomes alienated, becomes the other that is potentially harmful. There is no way we can know ourselves as a separate entity. This fear is going to accentuate years later.

The characters with whom the audience associate enter the simulacrum, only to find out that their own world is just another simulation. Possibilities at this point are boundless, yet for the sake of relieving the anxiety and getting the bad guy punished, the happy ending ruins this suspense. The boundary of reality is again firmly restored and the most important question is never asked. Furthermore, it affirms that the dark side of us can be eliminated, it can be separated and got rid of. We leave the cinema, untroubled, pleased with the moral lesson that baddies will be punished and our lives will only get better.

Moon (2009) – I Don't Like Me

Sam Rockwell - Moon
Sam Rockwell in Moon
Duncan Jones (dir.), Kevin Spacey

In Moon (2009) the self is materialized into something more physical, more tangible. In The Thirteenth Floor the self isn't separated; one enters into oneself in different space and time. It is about who is controlling who, which space and which time is more real.

Remember that Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1996. Although the concept of human cloning occurred at least twenty years before that, the actual successful experiment naturally shed a different light on the whole subject.

How are we to treat our clones? Are they "humans" like us? This question by the time of Moon, or even a few years before as explored by Kazuo Ishiguro in Never Let Me Go (2005), is no longer relevant. The clones have their separate identities; though they are conceived as new slaves, the originals' claim of lordship over them is more than questionable; but then at the same time, how are we to deal with infinite copies of ourselves?

This becomes more complicated with the disappearance of the "original." The "I" is in serious crisis, the uniqueness or the very definition of "individual" is in crisis. And like the animal that we are, the solution is to destroy the copy. Narcissism turns against itself, though ironically, the result is the same. Here is ancient wisdom.

Triangle (2009) – Second, Third, Fourth ... Chance

Melissa George - Triangle
Melissa George in Triangle
Christopher Smith (dir.), Joshua McIvor, Jack Taylor
Curiously in the same year another movie deals with a similar theme, Triangle. Jess (Melissa George) is trapped in tiime/cruise, and the only way she can get out and start all over again (second chance) is to kill every one on board, including herself. To be given a second opportunity has its price. The threat now comes not from a copy, a clone, but from ourselves.

This shift is important. The responsibility falls back upon ourselves. We have made a bad choice, and there is no way to get away from that, except to repulse ourselves, to kill our earlier/later selves is the only way out.

At the same time this is an exploration of how far we can go. The bad guy is no longer conveniently materialized into another being, like in The Thirteenth Floor. The battle can only be won by proving how tough we are; are we stronger, more fearless, more unscrupulous than our other selves? There can't be a more literal illustration for "we are our own worst enemy."

Coherence (2013) – I Want My/Your Life

Emily Baldoni - Coherence
Emily Baldoni in Coherence
James Ward Byrkit (dir.), Maury Sterling, Nicholas Brendon

A comet passes close to Earth and creates a rupture which puts parallel universes in the same frame. Again we see the longing for different possibilities, a consolation that we no longer have to choose only one road, less travelled by or no, but that we, or versions of we, have travelled all the paths.

It is not a new idea that we don't know what we are capable of, or what we are made of; when the time comes, we will know our true worth, a spineless nobody or a fearless hero who is not afraid to die for a good cause. The first part still holds true, that we don't know what we are capable of, but it is no longer about whether we are brave enough to do the right thing or we are cowards blindly following orders.

It is more about facing ourselves, not our fears, but ourselves literally. The thesis is that we are capable of destroying ourselves when we see that the other "I" has made a better choice and is living a happier life. Our "selves" are no longer united. They are split. The war is no longer between you and I, but I and I. The possibility of reunion is out; it is no longer the individuals against society, like the love song of Prufrock, but the individuals against themselves; you and I can no longer linger in the "chambers of the sea," there is no room to retreat into oneself, there isn't enough space. Even if both will drown, one will kill the other first and then drown.

In the same year we see the more well-know Oblivion (2013) with Tom Cruise and Andrea Riseborough. It explores several themes that we have been talking about, original and copy, second chance, but the danger is from outside and it stays outside (the bad aliens). The self, even the self of the copies, remains intact, forever truthful. There is no depth to it.

Back to Maugham


We have come a long way from the mentality that Maugham observed in his time. The analysis sounds bleak, yet perhaps the best way is to take it as Maugham took it, a joke and laugh it off. This may sound unsatisfying, yet it is an interesting exercise to explore the depth of the human psyche; the best is to sit back and enjoy the movies.

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