Wednesday, 1 March 2017

The Sacred Flame (1928): A Story About Love. Analysis and First Edition

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The Sacred Flame - Maugham 1928
The Sacred Flame, Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1928

The Sacred Flame. A Play in Three Acts. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Company, 1928.

Reading the play The Sacred Flame was a curious experience. I feel sorry that I had some ideas of what it was about, which thus destroyed the suspense, and I can't say whether I would have guessed it right if I were not to know anything about it. However, it wouldn't be possible to discuss the play if I don't talk about what the story is about, so if you haven't read it and intend to do so, it would be better that you come back to read the following later.

Stott writes that it was a flop when it was first produced in New York and London. He attributes it to the "literary dialogue" which Maugham never experimented again. Maugham himself, when talking about the play in The Summing Up (1938) and in his collected plays, focuses on the literary language as an experiment, which could be where Stott's comment comes from. Hastings (The Secret Lives of Somerset Maugham) has more to say, that the lead female role, Stella, was written with Gladys Cooper, Maugham's favourite actress, in mind, and contradictory to Stott, she tells us of its success.



The Sacred Flame with Gladys Cooper
The Sacred Flame with Gladys Cooper, from Mander & Mitchenson

So now I have to go to Mander and Mitchenson (Theatrical Companion to Maugham) to resolve this mystery. Different from what Stott says, the play was first produced in Washington, and then a few days later in New York, with only 24 performances (thus a flop). Subsequently, it was performed in London by Gladys Cooper in 1929, with 209 performances (thus a success).

It is interesting to read the contrasting contemporary reviews in New York and London. The former denounced the flop, the latter the success. The enthusiastic London critic asks: "Suppose that we had known from the outset that it was his mother who killed Maurice Tabret in the night, would the play have been weakened?" He or she was in full confident that it would be a negative answer. I am not so sure about that.

I think it is distracting to concentrate on the literary language used. Reading a play is different from seeing it performed, and likely the awkwardness is less noticeable in silent reading. The obsession with the language becomes a distraction towards what is most interesting in the play, and I wonder if Maugham tried to divert attention to it.

Euthanasia—a subject still very controversial in our age.

The Sacred Flame – Plot


The Sacred Flame, film versions
The Sacred Flame, film versions, from Mander & Mitchenson

Maurice Tabret became an invalid in an accident while trying out a new plane. With his sardonic humour, Maugham has Maurice flying safe and sound during the war and got paralysed in a harmless exercise. Nurse Wayland has been looking after him, because Maurice insists on sparing his wife, Stella, the unpleasantness of tending him. Deeply in love with his young wife, Maurice also realizes the futility of it, when he can no longer gives Stella any pleasure or hope for the future. Meanwhile, Maurice's brother, Colin, is back home from Central America to visit and Maurice is relieved that there is someone to take Stella out.

Quite unavoidably, Colin and Stella fall in love, to the point that Stella got pregnant. Stella still loves Maurice, as love goes, and naturally she is in anguish. Maurice's mother, Mrs. Tabret, has an inkling of what is going on. She is by no means going to blame anyone.

Mrs. Tabret
I suppose I'm not very easily revolted. I've lived too long abroad to think that my own standard of right and wrong is the only one possible. We all know nowadays that morality isn't one and the same in all countries and at all times. There are many things, for instance, that we think right here and they think wrong in India... (p. 147)

Mrs. Tabret
I always think we do best by people when we help them in the way they want to be helped rather than in the way we may think they should be helped. I would sooner someone gave me a vanity bag that I hankered after than a shawl to wrap round my old bones that I didn't happen to want. (p. 113)

If only there were more Mrs. Tabrets in the world!

In the second act, the next day, Maurice is found dead.

While it is accepted by the family and Maurice's doctor, Nurse Wayland refuses to treat the death as by natural causes. She demands an autopsy on the ground of murder, because 5 tablets of chloral are unaccounted for, and there is no way Maurice would have been able to get the drug himself. This becomes a big problem as initially there is a lack of motive, as everyone loves Maurice. Eventually, the affair between Stella and Colin comes out, and Stella becomes the chief suspect.

When the threat of charges becomes inevitable by Nurse Wayland's insistence, explained by her love for Maurice, Mrs. Tabret owns up to her act. She is the one who gave Maurice the tablets. It is a tacit agreement between them that she would help end his life when it becomes unbearable. On the strength of such a promise, Mrs. Tabret kills her son, so that he doesn't have to suffer the loss of Stella's affection.

To our modern legalistic sensitivity, it lacks a certain explicit signal from Maurice. Maurice is certainly in the way, and this is the best solution for all, less painful, except for the self-righteous Nurse Wayland. Perhaps we can accept Stella and Maurice getting a divorce, clearing the path to Stella and Colin getting together, and Nurse Wayland getting married with Maurice. Unfortunately though, rarely things work out this way. Nurse Wayland comes across as too severe a companion anyway.

To protect Stella and prevent a scandal, Mrs. Tabret confesses and Nurse Wayland, hugely moved, accepts not to pursue the matter. Presumably the two women are going to keep each other company and reminisce about Maurice for the rest of their lives.

It may have come out quite differently on stage, but reading the play on paper, I find it a bit hard to accept the fact when there isn't any indication of Maurice calling for his mother's help, and I wonder how Colin and Stella are going to go through with their relationship and the future knowing the whole truth. It could have been a better solution just to confess it to Nurse Wayland only, to get her to shut up.

I don't find any awkwardness with Maugham's more literary language in the play, except when Stella runs on about her love in poetic phrases: "What a punishment because I couldn't resist the love that swept me up, as a gust of wind in March sweeps up last year's dead leaf." And the love, with all its seriousness, between Colin and Stella is quite unlike the usual relationships in Maugham's works, which are more cynical, less idealistic, unrequited, perhaps one-sided, one should say.

In terms of characters, of course Stella is the one that steals the stage. Maurice has his poignancy in full force, but appears only in the first act. Nurse Wayland is adequately irritating. Colin is but a draft, not very developed. Mrs. Tabret is another of Maugham's strong female character, the pillar of the family. The rest are minor characters, there to serve their different purposes for the plot to move on.

Analysis: A Story About Love


The Sacred Flame, 1928 copyright
The Sacred Flame, Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1928 copyright page

The title The Sacred Flame is taken from Coleridge's poem "Love." Maugham's titles are all very felicitous; he has always been very ingenious when naming his books. He uses the first stanza of the poem as epigraph to his play:

All thoughts, all passions, all delights,
Whatever stirs this mortal frame,
All are but ministers of Love,
And feed his sacred flame.

This points out the main theme of the play and gives substance to the story that we discussed above. Perhaps after all, this isn't a play about euthanasia, but about love, and the different levels of love. If you think about it, isn't euthanasia ultimately about love?

Coleridge's opening lines is a confirmation of all kinds of love, physical as well as spiritual. However, when the poem progresses, love is mixed with sadness and seems impossible to unmingle itself.

She loves me best, whene’er I sing
The songs that make her grieve.

The poet woos his love by singing about a poignant love story, acting as a deterrence towards making the same mistake, which eventually leads his love Genevieve to unite with him out of her own free will. Nevertheless,

'Twas partly love, and partly fear,
And partly ’twas a bashful art,

It seems happiness is far from the objective of love.

The Sacred Flame contains several love stories. There is the devoted love between Maurice and Stella, the happiest among all, it was "open and sunny," as "natural as the air" one breathes (p. 172), but no longer sustainable. It has become poignant and futile after Maurice's accident. It is replaced by Stella's love for Colin, which is full of "pain," "remorse," and "bitterness" of the knowledge and lament of the death of love (p. 172).

There is the long gone love between Mrs. Tabret and Major Liconda, which was sacrificed for Maurice's sake. Like the love of the Knight and the Lady of the Land in Coleridge's poem, it is a story of warning to the living. Mrs. Tabret is telling Stella and Colin not to repeat her mistake.

There is the great love between Mrs. Tabret and Maurice, a mother's love. She gives up Major Liconda for him, and it is because of her love that she ends his life to save him from suffering from the realization of the loss of Stella's love.

There is the love of Nurse Wayland towards Maurice, which makes her stand up to all pressure and insists on finding out the cause of death, and which makes her hate Stella. Love doesn't make Nurse Wayland happy or generous. It is hopeless and unrequited.

In 1927, Syrie Maugham filed for divorce, which was finalized in 1929. However their relationship was, it must have affected Maugham. It was an admission of defeat on both sides. This may have led Maugham to contemplate on the nature of love. The final thought isn't all dark and poignant. The sacred flame remains when all ends.

The Sacred Flame – First Edition


The Sacred Flame, Maugham 1928 title
The Sacred Flame, Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1928 title page

The play was first published in November 1928, by Doubleday, Doran & Company. The UK edition came out later in February 1929. So, strictly speaking, the US edition is the first edition. This is also the first play published after the merger between Doubleday and Doran. According to Stott, the Heinemann edition, different from before and after this edition, has the same binding as the US edition. The design of the binding inherits George Doran's old one.

The Sacred Flame, collected ed The Sacred Flame, collected ed, U London bookplate
The Sacred Flame, Collected Plays v.5

I also have a copy of the collected plays. The Sacred Flame is in volume V, together with Cæsar's Wife and East of Suez, first published in 1934. Yes, I know. I would like to strangle the librarian. I haven't attempted to remove the sticker. Oh well, it's part of the book's history anyway, together with whatever drink it was that used the book as coaster, nasty habit really.

I better end this post before I chip in more complaints. The Sacred Flame is available for download.

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The Sacred Flame at ABE

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