Friday, 30 December 2016

"The Princess and the Nightingale" (1922) – W. Somerset Maugham

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The Princess and the Nightingale, 1922
The Princess and the Nightingale, 1922

In this post, I am going to talk about a most unusual story among W. Somerset Maugham's works, first published as "The Princess and the Nightingale." It has a curious publication history and is one of a kind in Maugham's œvre.

Maugham's repertoire is quite wide. He wrote novels, plays, short stories, essays, criticism, reviews, autobiographies, prefaces, letters to the editor, biographical portraits, screenplays (though never used), travel books, and edited anthologies. I don't think I have missed anything. Adding to this is a children's story.

As some of Maugham's output is, this one on first glance is a commissioned piece, but later we will see that the origin of its creation isn't so clear-cut. The occasion was the building of the Queen's Dolls' House. As its name suggests, it is one of those tiny little houses for dolls, with diminutive furniture, etc., except that this one is one of its kind, being Her Majesty the Queen's, so you can imagine.

The queen in question was Queen Mary. The idea of making a royal dolls' house was suggested in 1920, which was met with enthusiasm, and so the ball kept rolling. The aim was to preserve a fragment of life of that time for posterity to see. Of course as it was a house for the monarchs' dolls, the fragment was of the royal kind of life, supposedly with luxury and taste, no expenses spared.



The Queen's Dolls' House
The Queen's Dolls' House, from Daily Mail

The architect Sir Edwin Lutyens, known for his work New Delhi, took up the challenge. It became an immense project and all details were looked into. Everything inside the dolls' house is real and functional, including the plumbing.

But of course plumbing isn't the most interesting thing in a dolls' house, though you have to say it's quite an impressive detail. The most acclaimed feature is the decoration. As a queen's dolls' house, the decoration has to excel. Now I am coming to my point. In order to shine and be the best of the best dolls' house, everything mirrors the real royal world, only diminutive in size. Furniture was made by renowned craftsmen, paintings drawn by the most famous artists, books written by the best-known writers.

The Queen's Dolls' House Library
The Queen's Dolls' House Library, from The Guardian

To fill the dolls' house's library, invitations were sent to important authors of the time to solicit their contributions. Each invitation contained a small blank book, with the best paper and binding, to be written in the author's own hand; as we all know, manuscripts are more precious than printed books. One of these invitations was sent to Maugham. According to Stott, the book was bound afterwards, as it was a laborious task to write in such small proportion (3.5 x 3 x 1.2 cm).

queen's dolls' library, bindings
Queen's Dolls' library, bindings

I have no doubt Maugham would happily oblige. Indeed he did. Not everyone did so. The request was to either copy a published work in the author's own hand or to write a new one, and if the author found it too difficult to write in such minuscule scale, he or she could send the manuscript and it would be copied out. Maugham did all himself, wrote a new story and wrote it in his own hand.

Since it is for a dolls' house, it is only becoming that the story is a fairy tale. Now comes the curious part. Maugham must have been quite pleased with his creation, and naturally it's a pity to have it all hidden only for the dolls' perusal in the royal palace. Before the dolls' house was even finished, Maugham already had the story published.

The Princess and the Nightingale - Publication History


The Princess and the Nightingale, fairy tale
The Princess and the Nightingale, fairy tale

Maugham made an arrangement to have the story printed in Pearson's Magazine in December 1922, on condition that the purpose of the story for the use in the dolls' house library not be disclosed. However, Maugham also had it published simultaneously in the States, in Good Housekeeping, in which he had the liberty to announce the exciting news:

Good Housekeeping, December 1922
Good Housekeeping, December 1922
A Note From the Author of This Story
I think perhaps I had better explain to you how I came to write a fairy story. A very special Dolls' House is being constructed for the Queen of England to be placed at Windsor Castle, and every department of an English home such as a King and Queen might live in is to be there, including of course a library. This is to consist of a collection of miniature volumes, written by various authors of the present day in their own hands, which are then to be suitably bound. "The Princess and the Nightingale" is my contribution to this library.

Some years later, however, Maugham inscribed in an individual edition of this story (which we will look at shortly) that it was written for his daughter Liza, who was 7 at the time of the writing of it. Of course he could have written it for both reasons.

The Princess and the Nightingale, John Richard Flanagan
The Princess and the Nightingale, John Richard Flanagan

The magazine story was illustrated by John Richard Flanagan, very beautifully done. The main part of the story was unnumbered, printed on different paper from the rest of the magazine.

Maugham's first short story success was in 1921, with the publication of The Trembling of a Leaf. He recounted later that he stopped writing stories after the unhappy collection Orientations, a youthful attempt which, though favourably reviewed, didn't have much to commend itself. They would have been negligible if not for the author's subsequent return to the short story genre. Many of these early stories have the seeds for later more mature ones, and it is interesting to compare them.

The Trembling of a Leaf is a collection of stories set in the South Seas. It contains one of the most famous Maugham stories, "Rain." The collection opened for Maugham another path that brought him fame and commercial success. His short stories began to appear abundantly in magazines. Since then, his was a regular name in England and the United States, Hearst's International, which later combined with Cosmopolitan, Good Housekeeping, Nash's Pall Mall, Redbook, The Saturday Evening Post, well into the 1940s. Thus, one story would habitually publish twice, and then collected in book form, and his novels serialized before publication. Some stories were even reprinted in later magazine issues. As an indefatigable professional writer, often he revised his stories after their first appearance in the magazines and before printing them in book form, sometimes changing their titles too.

Maugham's MS Doll's House Library
Maugham's MS Doll's House Library (top left corner)

"The Princess and the Nightingale" follows this pattern as one of the early stories. As mentioned, it was published in Pearson's and Good Housekeeping, but as a fairy tale, it is quite awkward to incorporate it in a short story collection, as Maugham's stories usually have more "adult" themes.

You have to admire Maugham's ingenuity. He incorporated it into Chapter XXXII of The Gentleman in the Parlour (1930), a travel book about his journey from Rangoon to Haiphong. He used the fairy tale as something he invented to entertain himself while recovering from malaria in the then Siam, the setting of his tale.

However, that would be having the chronology wrong, and perhaps we should give Maugham more credits and believe his own words. He started this journey in October 1922 with Gerald Haxton, his secretary and partner, and it is perfectly logical that he created the fairy tale as he said, while recovering from malaria in Thailand:


And because I had nothing to do except look at the river and enjoy the weakness that held me blissfully to my chair I invented a fairy story.
Princess September and the Nightingale
Princess September and the Nightingale

Likely he wrote it out instead of justing making it up in his head, as the story was published in December, and by that time, he had already promised it to the library of the Queen's Dolls' House.

The Book of the Queen's Dolls' House The Book of the Queen's Dolls' House, limited edition
The Book of the Queen's Dolls' House

The next publication of the story was in volume II of The Book of the Queen's Dolls' House in 1924, together with all the other texts in the dolls' house's library. The two formidable volumes of the limited edition are illustrated with photos and facsimiles of the house and its content, among which was a page of the little book in Maugham's handwriting. The edition was limited to 1,500 copies. Unfortunately, due to the dilapidated condition of my copy, I only include here a few reproduction, as I don't want to force it too much on the scanner.

princess september and the nightingale 1939 - somerset maugham Princess September and the Nightingale, Richard C. Jones
Princess September and the Nightingale, Richard C. Jones

However, that is not the end of it. In 1939, it was taken up by Oxford University Press in its series for children, with a slight change of the title to Princess September and the Nightingale. It was heavily illustrated by Richard C. Jones, intended for boys and girls between 8 and 12. Later this edition was reprinted again in 1998, with the addition of an introduction and an afterword, obviously giving up the idea to issue it as a children's book, though preserving the original drawings.

Although it is said that Richard C. Jones had been wanting to illustrate the story, he didn't seem to have read it carefully though. He has the nightingale perching on the wrong hand of the Princess in his drawing:

Princess lifting nightingale on the left hand
Princess lifting nightingale on the left hand

It is on the right hand that Maugham has the nightingale perched:
She stretched out the first finger of her right hand so that it served as a perch, and the little bird flew down and sat on it.
Princess September - Jacqueline Ayer
Princess September - Jacqueline Ayer

This story appeared to continue to fascinate artists. In 1969, after Maugham's death, it was published again on its own, under the title Princess September, by Harcourt, Brace & World, a publisher of textbooks, and illustrated by Jacqueline Ayer. This edition was issued by William Collins in Britain in the following year. These are the illustrations I like least. Somehow they seem to have taken the exoticism and the formal quality of the story setting away, captured so nicely by the stiffness of the figures in Jones's pictures.

Princess September and the Nightingale, 1998
Princess September and the Nightingale, 1998

As mentioned, the earlier edition was printed again. Samuel J. Rogal attempted to rescue the story from the innocent hands of children in his afterword, just in case they miss the meat, which I think is unnecessary. Maugham always believed in the simple enjoyment of story; why take it away from children? Aren't children's stories inherently full of messages and lessons? This edition can be borrowed from The Open library.

Very few things have been changed in the different versions of the story, only some punctuations and paragraph division.

Princess September and the Nightingale - Analysis


a page from The Book of the Queen's Dolls' House
a page from The Book of the Queen's Dolls' House

"Princess September and the Nightingale" is a delightful and funny fairy tale, as Maugham preferred to call it. It is full of humour, naughtiness, and gentle sarcasm:

First the King of Siam had two daughters and he called them Night and Day. Then he had two more, so he changed the names of the first ones and called the four of them after the seasons, Spring and Autumn, Winter and Summer. But in course of time he had three others and he changed their names again and called all seven by the days of the week. But when his eighth daughter was born he did not know what to do till he suddenly thought of the months of the year. The Queen said there were only twelve and it confused her to have to remember so many new names, but the King had a methodical mind and when he made it up he never could change it if he tried. He changed the names of all his daughters and called them January, February, March (though of course in Siamese) till he came to the youngest, who was called August, and the next one was called September.

"That only leaves October, November, and December," said the Queen. "And after that we shall have to begin all over again."

Princess September and the Nightingale, love and friendship
Princess September and the Nightingale, love and friendship

"No, we shan't," said the King, "because I think twelve daughters are enough for any man and after the birth of dear little December I shall be reluctantly compelled to cut off your head."

He cried bitterly when he said this, for he was extremely fond of the Queen. Of course it made the Queen very uneasy because she knew that it would distress the King very much if he had to cut off her head. And it would not be very nice for her."

:::

This bird sings much better than the parrots," said the King.

"I should have thought you got quite tired of hearing people say God Save the King," said the Queen. "I can't think why those girls wanted to teach their parrots to say it too."

"The sentiment is admirable," said the King, "and I never mind how often I hear it. But I do get tired of hearing those parrots say Pretty Polly."

"They say it in seven different languages," said the princesses.

"I dare say they do," said the King, "but it reminds me too much of my councillors. They say the same thing in seven different ways and it never means anything in any way they say it."

:::

"You're much better off where you are," said September. "You have a beautiful golden cage. It was made by the best workman in my papa's kingdom, and my papa was so pleased with it that he cut off his head so that he should never make another."

And it is a beautiful and moving story of love and friendship:

"Then take your freedom," she said, "I shut you in a golden cage because I loved you and wanted to have you all to myself. But I never knew it would kill you. Go. Fly away among the trees that are round the lake and fly over the green rice-fields. I love you enough to let you be happy in your own way."

:::
Then he opened his wings and flew right away into the blue. But the little princess burst into tears, for it is very difficult to put the happiness of someone you love before your own, and with her little bird far out of sight she felt on a sudden very lonely.

The ending is touching and preserves the overall light-hearted tone of the story, when Princess September was married to her advantage, in contrast with her eight sisters.

From tracing its publication history, it would seem that Maugham had the royal invitation in mind, and on his trip to the Far East he came up with this fairy tale while recovering from malaria. On the brink of death and subsequently on the road to recovery, perhaps his mind went to his young daughter Liza. The story conveys a strong message of love and freedom, and the courage to do things differently despite social conventions and peer pressure.

Maugham's marriage was far from a fairy tale. If Syrie his wife ever read Liza the story, I wonder what passed through her head. The ultimate test of genuine love is to "put the happiness of someone you love before your own," to let go. It sounds almost like a plead, an effort to salvage a relationship that was heading towards its eventual dissolution.

The story can be read at MMCCL.

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Princess September and the Nightingale (1939) at ABE
Princess September (1969) at ABE

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