Monday, 22 August 2016

W. Somerset Maugham and His 10 Best Novels of All Time

Home > Blog >

Maugham's Choice of 10 Best Novels
(if you don't see any image here, please disable blocking for Google widgets)

In this post I am going to talk about an interesting facet of collecting W. Somerset Maugham's books, which I suspect would be similar in other collecting activities.

When I started to seriously build my collection, my aim was to get all of Maugham's first editions, following the criteria of "true first" as the edition that came out first, whether it is an English or American edition. In the case of Maugham, often they were published on a different date.

Logically, this goal would be met eventually, satisfactorily or unsatisfactorily, as at times things are quite out of your control. For example, if you have a budget for this book, which one would you choose: true first or a limited signed copy? Both? Lucky you!

Or when you find just the one you are missing, but your account balance simply doesn't allow you to get it with a clear conscience. Or there are a few that aren't available in the market at all. No help for those; you can only drool at library catalogues, daydreaming about the courage of petty thieves that naturally you lack (just a joke; I am not inciting any cultural theft).

After you get bitten by the collecting bug, it's not so soon that you get cured. So, what do you do when you are waiting for the next special book to come along to fill the allotted space on your shelves?

In these "meanwhiles" you can get a sense of accomplishment by building little collections. I will talk about such a one of mine of Maugham's editions of 10 best novels of all time that he picked.



Maugham and the Ten Best Novels

In his later career, Maugham moved from fictional writing to essays, criticism, and editorial activities. His last novel was published in 1948, last story in 1947, last play in 1933. Besides the essays that he would continue to write until almost the end of his professional career, he was editors to several anthologies, starting with The Travellers' Library (1933) and ending in his edition of Rudyard Kipling's prose in 1952.

During the years from 1947 to 1949, Maugham completed the series the 10 Best Novels as editor. As its name suggests, it denotes Maugham's choice of the 10 best novels of all time.

The publication history of these 10 suggestions is worth recounting, because it shows Maugham's trajectory of revisions and reprints, and how he polished his works to a final form that was satisfactory for him. A portion of his works went through the same process, and through these essays we can witness a representation of it.

The definitive version of the 10 essays is the 10 Novels and Their Authors (1954). When it reached that stage, Maugham could at last leave the project alone and put a full stop to it.

In this book, he detailed how the project came along. One day when he was in the United States he was asked by the editor of the Redbook to make a list of the 10 best novels in the world, which he did accordingly, and more than that, he also added: "The wise reader will get the greatest enjoyment out of reading them if he learns the useful art of skipping." From that line was born a full project that spanned 7 years.

In the second state of the project, Maugham was approached by the publisher John C. Winston to reissue the 10 novels on his list, inviting him to write a preface for each and abridge the volumes, as he had so advised as a way to make them more enjoyable.

The history of John C. Winston Company is an interesting one, from a one man show to the incorporation of the publishing houses of Henry T. Coates and William Collins & Sons. By the time of the publication of Maugham's novel series, one of John C. Winston's specializations was on young adult novels.

The Winston Dictionary
The Winston Dictionary

In the midst of researching for this post, it was happenstance that I came across in a bookstore that I passed by a dictionary published by Winston in 1948: The Winston Dictionary. Encyclopedic Edition, one of their flagship series. It is an interesting reference book that has become a historical curiosity; besides being a dictionary, it contains encyclopedic information, including weights and measurement, foreign names, names of persons and places, chronological tables, English Phrases, Scottish Phrases, Christian names of men and women, how to write and speak English, how to write letters, gazetteer of the world, and world atlases. In short, a household reference book that was supposed to cover all kinds of information needs.

In order to write the prefaces, Maugham studied the life and work of the authors of the books that he had chosen. Maugham had very high opinion of the French critic Sainte-Beuve, although he saw the latter's unfairness to his contemporaries and his inhibiting jealousy. Even before Maugham began his own literary criticism he quoted a line of Sainte-Beuve as epigraph to his collection of short stories, The Trembling of a Leaf, from which he took the title.

Sainte-Beuve's critical method came to be known as biographism. He believed that an author's life set the yardstick for measuring his literary output. In order to be able to appreciate his works, the critic (and the reader) needs to understand the author the person.

As we know now, this centric role of the author was crushed to non-existence by subsequent critical theories. The author has gone from the almighty creator to the absolute nobody, theoretically. The text itself is what matters, but I am not going to get into it in this post. As long as a name is put on a book/text, it is hard to insist on the almost mythical death of the author.

Even before then, Proust had his mind dead set against Sainte-Beuve's method, which he saw as an infringement of the most private territory of the author. He urged that the author the creator had nothing to do with the author the social person.

Maugham must have been familiar with Proust's objections and how the wind was blowing with the modernists of his time, but he also must have disagreed with them, forging unapologetically his way with what he believed was the manner to understand a piece of literary work. He didn't question Sainte-Beuve's method, but he seemed to be intrigued by the mismatch between the author and his work. His own investigation into the author-text relation led him to destroy the myth of the god-like creator, but without severing the link between the author and his production.

This project of identifying the world's 10 best novels gave Maugham the opportunity to develop and consolidate his own method of literary criticism, which can be said to begin with Don Fernando (1935) and ended with Points of View (1958).

Greatest Novelists and Their Novels

As mentioned, the idea of the 10 best novels began with the article in Redbook. The American Publisher John C. Winston took it up and negotiated to reissue them in abridged versions, according to Maugham's comment on the art of skipping. To make them more substantial, each edited novel would come with a preface by our author and illustrations.

Maugham recounted that he was approached by the publisher Winston first and the prefaces were published in a condensed manner in The Atlantic Monthly. Nevertheless, the announcement of the abridged editions didn't appear until January 1948, when The Atlantic Monthly series reached the third instalment.

The first appearance of these essays was arranged in a very different order, which was revised a few times subsequently.

The Atlantic Monthly


Atlantic Monthly and 10 Best Novels
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

1. The Ten Best Novels: Madame Bovary
November 1947

2. The Ten Best Novels: Tom Jones
December 1947

3. Balzac
January 1948

4. The Ten Best Novels: Wuthering Heights
Feburary 1948

5. The Brothers Karamazov
March 1948

6. The Red and the Black
April 1948

7. Pride and Prejudice
May 1948

8. Moby Dick
June 1948

9. David Copperfield
July 1948

The 10th essay is on Tolstoy's War and Peace, but it wasn't serialized in The Atlantic Monthly because, according to Stott, there was a recent article on Tolstoy in the magazine and thus Maugham's wasn't printed.

John C. Winston Editions


10 Best Novels - Abridged
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

The 10 abridged versions of the novels were published from 1948 to 1949. Besides Maugham's editing and prefaces, the novels were illustrated and re-translated (those in foreign languages). The order, as I mentioned, is different from its publication in The Atlantic Monthly. The list, interestingly, is also different from the chronological printing history. It is not clear if the order means anything to Maugham's choice. I would tend to think not. He may even have arranged and rearranged them so as not to give the impression of a count-down list.

As a series in itself, they form an interesting collection. I have prepared an online gallery of covers, dust jackets, and illustrations in conjunction with this post.

1. Henry Fielding's The History of Tom Jones. A Foundling. Illustrated by Harry Diamond (1948)


Tom Jones
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

This must be Harry O. Diamond (1913–2003), magazine illustrator and painter of watercolour, born in Los Angeles but also active in New York. He is thus introduced:

Harry Diamond has added new charm to this old classic with his unusual color illustrations and black-and-white sketches, drawn especially for this edition. Mr. Diamond has quickly moved to fame, from art school in California to magazine illustrating in New York for Vogue, American, Science Illustrated, Woman's Home Companion, Good Housekeeping, and Holiday. Since World War II, when he served with O. W. I. Psychological Warfare in India, Burma, and China, his outstanding illustrations have gained considerable comment, both here and abroad.

There is something cartoonish in the illustrations, which thus should fit very well with Tom Jones. Personally, I am not too enthusiastic about the illustrations. It almost seems that there is something sinister about them.

2. Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice. Illustrated by Douglas Gorsline (1949)


Pride and Prejudice
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

Douglas Gorsline (1913–1985), though not as long-lived as Diamond, seemed to be more well-remembered. There is even a museum named in his honour, a project from his wife in memory of Gorsline, in Bussy-le-Grand. Gorsline's style is said to be a mixture of realism and cubism. For this particular volume, his illustrations are more towards realism.

Douglas Gorsline, whose four-color illustrations appear in this book, studied at the Yale School of Fine Arts and the Art Students League in New York. His work has won wide critical acclaim and has appeared at the Metropolitan Museum, the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts, and many other galleries throughout the country. With these illustrations he has graphically captured the mood of Jane Austen's fine narrative in a sensitive, intimate style.

3. Moby Dick or The White Whale Written by Herman Melville. Illustrated by Anton Otto Fischer (1949)


Moby Dick
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

Anton Otto Fischer (1882–1962) was best known for his seascapes. He illustrated for several magazines, famous for their stories and serials in the first half of the 20th century, The Saturday Evening Post, Harper's Weekly, Everybody's.

Anton Otto Fischer is an American by choice. Born in Germany, educated at the Académie Julian in Paris, he is now a resident of Woodstock, New York. Famed as an artist of seascapes, his work has appeared in The Saturday Evening Post and many other publications. Mr. Fischer's knowledge of the sea is apparent in these dramatic illustrations which so strikingly depict in color and black and white what Melville has magnificently described in prose.

4. Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights. Illustrated by Michael (1949)


Wuthering Heights
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

Michael is a little difficult to identify. At the moment I'll give up the challenge. His illustrations remind me of Barbara Cartland type of romance.

Michael, whose four-color illustrations appear in this edition, is well known for his work in The Saturday Evening Post, Ladies Home Journal, and Good Housekeeping. The vivid quality of his pictures heightens the effect of Emily Brontë's dramatic prose.

5. Charles Dickens' David Copperfield. Illustrated by Everett Shinn (1948)


David Copperfield
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

Everett Shinn (1876–1953) is a more familiar name in the artistic and literary circle of his time. He belonged to the group which came to be known as "The Eight" and was active in the artistic movement the Ashcan School, together with John Sloan, illustrator of Of Human Bondage for the Limited Edition Club. These illustrations for Dickens' novel don't seem to do him justice.

Everett Shinn, whose beautiful illustrations both complement and compliment Dickens' best loved work, is already well known for his character drawings of The Christmas Carol, The Happy Prince, and Rip Van Winkle. Mr. Shinn had his first one-man show at the age of twenty-two and today is successful not only as a painter and illustrator, but also as a playwright and designer. His illustrations in this book show Everett Shinn at his best.

6. Honoré de Balzac's Old Man Goriot. Illustrated by Rafaello Busconi. Translated by Joan Charles (1949)


Old Man Goriot
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

Rafaello Busconi (1900–1962), cosmopolitan of his age, self-taught and got to illustrate for the Limited Editions Club, which produced beautiful editions with illustrations. There is an edition they did for Of Human Bondage.

Rafaello Busoni, whose full-color pictures appear in this edition, is well known for his book illustrations which have taken prizes in both America and Europe. An author and humorist, as well as an artist, his colorful sketches effectively capture the spirit of Balzac's compelling prose.

7. Stendhal's The Red and the Black. Illustrated by Frede Vidar. Translated by Joan Charles (1949)


The Red and the Black
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

There isn't much on the Internet about Frede Vidar (1911–1967). He seemed to be famous for his illustrations for Mozart's Don Giovanni, which were published in Life. The style was very similar to that of the illustrations in The Red and the Black, especially the colours, which were done in the same period.

Frede Vidar was an official U.S.A. Combat Artist attached to General MacArthur's forces during World War II and is now a Major in the Engineers of the Organized Army Reserves. He was awarded the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Fellowship in 1946, and is perhaps best known to the general public as the artist who interpreted the Mozart Opera, "Don Giovanni," for Life magazine. In the four-color illustrations in this book, Mr. Vidar has captured the elusive quality of Stendhal's story in a style that complements and enhances the incisive prose.

8. Gustave Flaubert's Madame Bovary. Illustrated by Ben Stahl. Translated by Joan Charles (1949)


Madame Bovary
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

Ben Stahl (1910–1987) is more well known to posterity, despite the lukewarm introduction in the book.

Ben Stahl, the illustrator of this book, is best known for his pictures in the Saturday Evening Post and other national publications. His illustrations combine with Flaubert's powerful prose to underline the harsh reality that has made this book famous.

9. Fyodor Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov. Wood cuts by Louis Hechenbleikner. Translated by Princess Alexandra Kropotkin (1949)


The Brothers Karamazov
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

Louis Hechenbleikner (1893–1963), of Austrian origin, settled in U.S.A., and produced these fascinating woodcuts for The Brother Karamazov. Information about him is scarce. A note for the translator too. Princess Alexandra Kropotkin had a brief affair with Maugham, and she was the model for the fantastic portrait of Anastasia Alexandrovna Leonidov in Ashenden.

Louis Hechenbleikner, who won the Library of Congress award in 1945, is a master craftsman in the true tradition of wood engraving. In the skilful handling of a difficult medium he portrays the characters and events of The Brother Karamazov with the text's own sharp, grim reality.

10. War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy. Illustrated by J. Franklin Whitman. Translated by Princess Alexandra Kropotkin (1949)


War and Peace
(If you don't see any image, please unblock Google widgets)

Unfortunately I don't have too much information to offer concerning J. Franklin Whitman. From what I can gather, he seemed to be an illustrator for popular magazines, same as several illustrators in this series.

A note for collectors. These editions were quite popular, and there were reprints. "FIRST EDITION" is clearly stated in each on the copyright page.

"Ten Best Sellers." Good Housekeeping, Sept. 1948.


Ten Best Sellers - Good Housekeeping

Most probably as publicity campaign for the ten abridged novels, Maugham printed an essay in Good Housekeeping prior to the appearance of the first two novels in 1948.

This is an interesting essay. While modernists were busy killing the author, Maugham burrowed into the author's life and the relationship this had with his work. He strongly believed in the existence of a connection, although he admitted that it wasn't direct or even had any pattern.

This essay formed the postscript in the next item.

Great Novelists and Their Novels (Philadelphia: The John C. Winston Company, 1948)


Greatest Noveslist and Their Novels
Greatest Novelists and Their Novels

The first printing of this book appeared in September, 1948. It contains an introduction titled "The Ten Best Novels of the World" and a postscript. In the former, Maugham recounted the circumstance under which the series was conceived, as mentioned earlier in this post. The postscript is a more detailed version of the essay printed in the same month in Good Housekeeping.

Portraits of the 10 Novelists by Robert W. Arnold
(if you don't see any image here, please disable blocking for Google widgets)

The next interesting feature of this edition is the inclusion of the portraits of the ten authors. This edition probably catered towards those who were not prepared to purchase the abridged editions, but who would be willing to invest in a collection of prefaces by Maugham.

These portraits are present in the ten abridged editions, all done by Robert W. Arnold, presumably especially for this series, as they are dated '48. Robert W. Arnold doesn't seem to have come down to us. It would appear that he was an illustrator, and it could be an attempt of the publisher to give some continuity to the series by having the portraits of the ten authors done by the same artist.

Furthermore, Maugham again reshuffled the order of the ten novels of his choice. In this edition it is:

  1. War and Peace
  2. Old Man Goriot
  3. Tom Jones
  4. Pride and Prejudice
  5. The Red and the Black
  6. Wuthering Heights
  7. Madam Bovary
  8. David Copperfiled
  9. The Brothers Karamazov
  10. Moby Dick

The order will be changed again on the next occasion for publication.

The Sunday Times Series: June to October 1954


The Sunday Times - 10 Greatest Novelists
  • "Somerset Maugham on the Greatest Novelists" (13 Jun. 1954)
  • "The Greatest Novelists–II: Jane Austen's Way" (20 Jun. 1954)
  • "The Greatest Novelists–III: Jane Austen's Art" (27 Jun. 1954)
  • "The Greatest Novelists–IV: Balzac's Wild Way" (4 Jul. 1954)
  • "The Greatest Novelists–V: Balzac & His Hero" (11 Jul. 1954)
  • "The Greatest Novelists–VI: Dostoevsky the Man" (18 Jul. 1954)
  • "The Greatest Novelists–VII: Wonderful Monsters" (25 Jul. 1954)
  • "The Greatest Novelists–VIII: Problem of Evil" (1 Aug. 1954)
  • "Somerset Maugham on the Brontë Tragedy" (12 Sept. 1954)
  • "The Secret of Emily Brontë" (19 Sept. 1954)
  • "The Truth About the Young Dickens" (26 Sept. 1954)
  • "The Three Women in Dickens' Later Life" (3 Oct. 1954)
  • "Why Dickens Was a Very Great Novelist" (10 Oct. 1954)
  • "If My Ten Great Novelists Met at a Party" (17 Oct. 1954)
  • "The Unsolved Mystery of the Great Novelists" (24 Oct. 1954)

After the ambitious project that led to the publication of 9 articles in The Atlantic Monthly, 1 article in Good Housekeeping, 10 abridged editions with prefaces and illustrations, 1 edition of the collection of prefaces with introduction and postscript, which took up over a year of Maugham's time to prepare the studies, editions, and writing, he must have felt somewhat dissatisfied.

Imagine the amount of information available of the ten authors, even at that time. It calls for assiduous studies, and definitely one year is too few to accomplish the task. Furthermore, around the same time, Maugham published his last novel Catalina (1948), A Writer's Notebook (1949), and Quartet (1948), alongside its film version.

What did Maugham do when he wasn't completely satisfied with a piece of work? He revised it as perfectly as he knew how, and then he could safely forget about it.

He ploughed through his works and amended them as necessary for the collected editions, even changing the ending of The Painted Veil. He revised Don Fernando heavily 15 years after its publication. He added prefaces. He wrote postscripts to The Summing Up and A Writer's Notebook in subsequent revised editions.

The publications discussed previously happened in the United States. As was habitually the case, except a few anthologies, Maugham's works were printed in England also.

In The Life of Ian Fleming by John Pearson, some details were given on how Ian Fleming negotiated with Maugham to have the essays serialized in The Sunday Times.

Fleming got wind about Maugham's new book in a letter from the latter to his wife Anne, whom Maugham was very fond of. Fleming at that time was working for The Sunday Times; besides his personal admiration of the older author, Fleming thought the serialization of this new book would be just the thing to consolidate his position on the paper. Maugham's outright refusal to Fleming's proposal was sweetened by an invitation to Villa Mauresque.

In a conversation reproduced in Pearson's book, the negotiation went as follows:

"I have never been published in a newspaper," said the old man, and smiled acidly. "When I began I would have given anything to earn a guinea or two from the Morning Post. But they always turned me down. Now I don't care. I have been offered a pound a word to write for serialization in America. I have refused."

"We could buy you a Renoir," replied Fleming. "A small one."

"I don't want a Renoir. Anyhow, it would be illegal.1"

When lunch was finished, Fleming, nevertheless, got what he wanted.

However, I am very intrigued by this account of the incident. As we have seen, Maugham already had the essays published a few years ago, and they could hardly be seen as a completely new project.

On the other hand, it was a different age. Publications simply didn't cross the ocean. However, it seems that despite The Atlantic Monthly, the John C. Winston's series, and Great Novelists and Their Novels, the project didn't pick up steam until its serialization in The Sunday Times. In Behrman's biography of Max Beerbohm, when he mentioned Maugham's choice of the 10 best novels, he referred only to Maugham's series of articles in The Sunday Times.2

Maugham's claim that he never published in a newspaper was odd also. He had published, in the same newspaper, The Sunday Times, a few reviews, and his introduction to Gladys Cooper's biography was printed there just the year before.

Then, his essays, as we saw, had already been serialized in The Atlantic Monthly, although in this conversation he said he had refused an offer in America.

It could just be Maugham's tactic to get a better negotiation for his travail. At the end, he got £3,000 (which would be roughly equivalent to £75,600 now) for four to six articles. When the time drew near, Maugham seemed much pleased about the deal, and he chided Fleming: "What an unflattering photograph you published! It will cost me half my fans.3"

The Sunday Times - Somerset Maugham
Press Photo: W. Somerset Maugham in The Sunday Times

Pearson referred to a notice that Fleming put in a week before the serialization, but actually it was a more detailed piece 2 weeks before, which contained a photo of Maugham. Certainly, efforts were made to devote lots of publicity to the event.

The first instalments generated considerable responses and a section was reserved in the Letters to the Editor that commented on Maugham's pick of the 10 novels, his blatant discourse on the art of skipping, and his criticism on the authors for 3 weeks.

Letters to the Editor - The Sunday Times 10 Best Novels
Letters to the Editor - The Sunday Times 10 Best Novels

These letters reflect Maugham's readers' robust discussions, not only towards what our author wrote, but also among themselves, report of private group discussions and responses to each other's letters.

Furthermore, each instalment was accompanied by photos and drawings of the authors concerned, which, unfortunately, were not reproduced in book form.

10 greatest authors in a party 10 greatest authors in a party
10 greatest authors in a party

It was a great success. Circulation was significantly increased and the back-dates department ran out of copies.4 Maugham agreed to provide up to 15 instalments without extra charge, presumably starting from 12 September, on which a notice announced that back orders were accepted for those who had missed previous instalments.

One day after the last instalment, on 25 October, Maugham's new book came out, and that Sunday a favourable review was published in The Sunday Times by J. W. Lambert.

Ten Novels and Their Authors (London: Heinemann, 1954)


Ten Novels and Their Authors
Ten Novels and Their Authors

Maugham's arrangement with The Sunday Times was a serialization of extracts from his book, counting the additional articles, only the chapters on Austen, Balzac, Dostoevsky, Brontë, and Dickens were covered.

In this new revision, Maugham reordered his authors again:

  1. Henry Fielding and Tom Jones
  2. Jane Austen and Pride and Prejudice
  3. Stendhal and Le Rouge et le Noir
  4. Balzac and Le Père Goriot
  5. Charles Dickens and David Copperfield
  6. Flaubert and Madame Bovary
  7. Herman Melville and Moby Dick
  8. Emily Brontë and Wuthering Heights
  9. Dostoevsky and The Brothers Karamazov
  10. Tolstoy and War and Peace

I tend to think that this is a deliberate effort to dispel prioritization of any book on his list, as it is hard enough to choose only 10, although he did grant that War and Peace was the greatest novel.

Maugham had also revised heavily the introduction and the conclusion from their previous version in Great Novelists and Their Novels, with the former greatly augmented into "The Art of Fiction" and the latter rewritten.

As part of the promotion of the book, Maugham granted a 45 minutes interview with Malcolm Muggerich on 2 November. An extract is available for viewing for those who are in England.

The Art of Fiction. An Introduction to Ten Novels and Their Authors (New York: The Literary Guild of America, 1955)


The Art of Fiction
The Art of Fiction

Finally, we reach the end of this mini-collection. Ten Novels and Their Authors was printed in the United States under the title The Art of Fiction. An Introduction to Ten Novels and Their Authors a few months later. It was first published by Doubleday, and my edition was one by The Literary Guild of America, which I picked up in a bookstore for practically nothing.

A publisher's note is added in the American edition: "THE ART OF FICTION is a revised and enlarged version of a collection of Prefaces published in 1948. The present book appears in England under the title TEN NOVELS AND THIER AUTHORS."

By way of conclusion...

After going through the journey of the publication history of Maugham's ambitious project of critical appraisal of the world's 10 best novels, the first thought that popped into my head, quite uncontrollably, is what a packet Maugham must have made for his labour!

I know this is by no means the right reaction, on top of being unfair, but it is hard not to think about article after article of literary criticism in academic journals, the fee of which is supposedly included in the professor's salary, or none at all in the case of independent researchers who are supposedly fed altruistically by their passion. I guess if you ever want to make money, the venerable academic institutions are the wrong places to land.

This is in all aspects the wrong conclusion. So we start again.

These essays are rich for studying Maugham as critic, which I don't think has ever been explored. Against the current of his time, his literary criticism is overlooked. With the author pronounced dead, who would dig more into their life as persons?

However, I would say that they provide abundant material to examine the tradition that Maugham followed and how he incorporated and was influenced by literary theories of his time, and how he formulated the author as self and selves and his/her/their relations to the text and the world at large. Long as this post is already, I hope in the future I will be able to go more into this.

Another important finding from the history of these essays is its illustration of Maugham's working habit and method, his revisions and rewriting. I am able to trace from these printed materials the inception of a project to its final definitive product. I hope Maugham's seriousness towards the subject is apparent, with the time and care he devoted to it.

Closely linked to this is the publication process of that time, and of course, the interesting field of book illustration, which I can only provide in the form of a gallery of reproductions and very brief introductions to the artists involved.

Finally, such a mini-collection brings richness to the broader private collection, and gives pleasures to the collector. It is easier to complete and offers satisfaction.

You can see the gallery of W. Somerset Maugham & 10 Best Novels on my Google+ collection.


Tom Jones at AbeBooks
David Copperfield at AbeBooks
Pride and Prejudice at AbeBooks
Moby Dick at AbeBooks
Wuthering Heights at AbeBooks
Old Man Goriot at AbeBooks
The Red and the Black at Abebooks
Madame Bovary at AbeBooks
The Brothers Karamazov at AbeBooks
War and Peace at AbeBooks
Great Novelists and Their Novels at AbeBooks
Ten Novels and Their Authors at AbeBooks
The Art of Fiction
                                                         `                                          
                                                        `                                           
                                                      `                                             
                                                `,      .,:,,,  :.                                  
                                               `      ,.   :`  +#'                                  
                                            ``  :@#      `:;   +'+#:                                
                                         .,,` `##:  ,: `,,:   :,:.  ;:.                             
                                      ,:,;`'####:,''@' ``;   ,:`    `                               
                                  .;+#:`` :+++  .,';;`  ;:  `.```      `,                           
                                 :#@@: ```#;,  ` ', ,`  +  ``    `.    .:`                          
                            `   .+#@'    .#    `.``        ;: `     :.,:`                           
                           `   .:;;'     .    . :          `: `      `'.   ;,                       
                          ``  `. `#      `   ,:,;   , ,   ,.``         .  .,:+                      
                          .` `,,  #   . .   `. .   .  :   ,:        ``   ,  ,:'                     
                          ,. ` ' .`   ```   ;: : `        '                                         
                               . ,     .    ``     `    . ,             `    :`                     
                         `   `   :`    `    ``     .    ,.``  `  `      `   ''  ++                  
                       `     `    ,                . `  :,    `            :.``  :#                 
                             `    .``     ` ` `   `, ,  :.  `             .;.  `'@@+                
                     `    `   `           ` :     `.    :   `             ,;`  @@. +                
                              .             ,    ``  . `'   `.            ,.  #@    ,               
                     ``,`                   .    ,`  , `:   `.   `           ;#  `##+;              
                        `,  `,                   `   ' ,,   ;               ''` .`   ,`             
                            .:;           `          # ':   .   `    . `   +..       `              
                           `.+,            ``        ;`+.  `        .``   .;`      ..               
                          `:.      `. `              `:;,  `  `    ,.      .    :;.                 
                         ` `;    .``                 .  : .  `     .       ,  ,::     `             
                       `;::;`   ,`                     `.                    ::`   .::,             
                        ``..    `     `,,`             .                     `    `,` :             
                       ;;;',        ``  ` `                                   .        .            
                      ::.+;.        `                                         ` `                   
                         #                                                    ';      `             
                      `.'+                                      `             ;`,::` `.`            
                     .,,,#      .                               `                  ,: ``            
                     ,:``#`                          ````   ``.,.`  .',        ::.  ,  :            
                      ``,+            ``                              `;,      `      ,,`           
                      ` .`     ..,```,'.                                `.     .      .             
                     ..`.     `               .`             `,,::+',          :+`    ;`            
                       :;   ``                  `.`..`.`            .:;'.      '.                   
                       '   ``                       `                   `,     .+.                  
                    `..             .;:;,                     ```.,;:..   `      ;:.  `..,`         
                   `,,`                 ,,:`           ` ``.````.`  ,` ;,  `     `   ,:             
                    ``                     .,,`                         ',       ;`  :.             
                   .,.        `  `,;;::`     .``                 `;+##;  ;.      :   ..             
                   ,,.        `     ..:,;:     ```          `..:::    `+  ,     `.    `             
              ;#.                        ,.       `.```..` `            ;  `    ``    `.            
              `@'               .,,.         `                  .::,:,`  :            .             
               #@             `                                        .  `                         
            `   '                `:+.                        `                  ,  `` ``.       `   
           `.    :  `          `:,+##:                               ``         `   `  ,:`          
            .#   ,             ,`  +#@### `,                        `  ``        ::,.`              
             @`  ``          `:     ,'##@#@#'                    `+#'              ,`               
             #`   .          ;:    `:;+###'@#.        `    ` ..;+####'    .        .     .`         
           ` .    `     `   +;`  `    .#'`,@+,       `.   `..##;+;`,'#@;`  ,`     `  .   `          
          ``   ;           .+:          +;.##;+   `   `   `::,``,   .,###'`,    `                   
              `@:          :+;`,   .;`   , ;.`#+`              `: `;'##,;+;:           ,            
           `  ,@@`          #'#  +@  '@@  `#'.;#`        .,  ;;          ,'+          ::            
              ,#@`         `'## : @@@@@##  ;#;.':       `:` :'            ,'         .+             
              ,+           `;:.    @@@,  #. .'``'       `, .' .#++'@+               :'              
            ` :           `';  ,          @    `+        ` :;+.'#@@@@'    #:        @'              
              .                 ,              ,.       `,` +   @@@@  +'; ,`       +#.  `           
           .  `           `.     `,',   .+     ,                 #@,    '         ,#.   `           
                          ``            ++ .  `;                          `       #'                
            `             .` ..        ,: ;   :,            ''      ,,    ;:      +:                
          ` ,      `          .`        .;.   ;       `   :` '+`           .       `                
            ` `                ;        +,   :.       ,    +  :       .   `                         
                              .:`     .+,    :`       :`   +:    .;;',:   ``                        
                :             .`     ,'`     ``       ,,    +        .;    .          .             
            `  `'              `  `.`.        `       ,     ..       ;,               .             
            `  ,+          `.     ..                 .`  :   ;.      ,             .                
               +'          ``    .,                  `        #+,   `   `          ,                
             . #           .:+;  ..       ,`,`            `    ...              ,.                  
            `:   `;       `:+;:  `       ;';+,    `       `         `   .       #.                  
             .   +@;      .::`          '+``+,    .    ,,`        `::,  ,`      #                   
          ``   :#@@'     ..,,          :++  ;`    `    :+'`        `,'. `:      ',                  
                `   .    ,``    ,`    ;'+         ``     `;`             ``   ``                    
       `            ,    `     '.    +, ,                 ':           `      ,`    `               
      ``           ,+    .    ;;    ,+   '.               `;                  :,                    
         `         :+    `   `:.    '    ;+##             `+'             `   ;.   `                
                   ';    `   +,    :.    `,@@@        `@@: `#`    .,          ,`                    
                  `;`       ,:     :    `  ;#@  ',:: +@@.   #;`    `    `     `                     
          .        ;`       :      `     ` :'@#.@@@@@@+.    ,+`         `     `                     
           ` `   ``:`       `    .`       ` `,#@@@@;`        +'   ``    `    `                      
             `     :`           ..        ` ...##:            '   `,         .                      
                  .;`    ` ``  .'           ..:,              ;:   .         `                      
                   ,     , .   .;                      `      `;             `                      
                   ;`   `.     :  ,                            ;            `                       
            `     `''   ``    `:        :` ,+`                 ..                                   
                   @@   `     ;, ',``;+@@@@@@@#    .            ,           @                       
           `      ;@@   `     :  '+#+, ++  .;#@: +@@@@#         .  `       :@+                      
                 '+##:  ``  `.                 .;#@@@+@@@.         ``      @#:,`                    
                .' ;'#   ,   `                          ,+#;`              #;`,'`                   
  `      .,;:``',#  '#   `      .   ,                      +#+,`   `      ''``,,:                   
  ` `` ` ```  `,    :@   `         `,                              ``    ,#`  ``                    
 ``. ` .,     `   .`;##      `     ,                                `    ;#,                        
. ``         `.:` . ,##      ,,    .       ```   `                        #;                        
            :  ``  `;+@`  `  .:    .        ```  `:,..:,   ``  `          :..          ``           
`      `  ``.`  .   ,`#       .`  `.     `   ``   `````    ..  .       '  .,`                       
       .  `  .  `  `:''    ,   `   `                        `  `      ;:  .,`                       
        `.         `.`'    ,.      ``                                ::   `,                `       
         ,           .@  `` ;   .  `.                               :'                              
         `          .++   `  '  ;    .`                            ,+.      `                 `     
       `            `,;    ` `;,`    ..                     `      +;       .                   ``  
       `    `       `.;       :;     `,                   .:      +;`     ` `                       
                ``  `;;      ` ,      ,.                  `     ,+;'      `                         
               `.  ```;         .  `  ..:                    .'#+,''      . `                       
          ```   .`   `.         `,      '`     `             '#';:'`      ` `                       
      `.  .` ``  `       `       `..  ```,                 ,',,`.,:         `    ,    .   ..        
    `:`           `  ` . .        `.  , ';,;            .;.';    `          `   @@   ; , #,,#       
   `:',           :,, ` ``           ,;   '###:..  +:  :#+, , .`,`         `     @          #       
   ,,,`            `             `    ,:  , +@#@#@@@@@@@@     .`,          .     @        `@        
   :`              ,,         `        ''+       @@@@@@##`    ,:         ` .     @       ;@         
  ,`                ,`. ``                 .  `` . :;,      `,;          .      @@@      @@@@       
 ,,  `              '.  :, `  .`       ,,    `@;.@@@@@#  .  `,.                                     
 .                  ``` ``                  @; @@@@@  `@    ,,                                      
,              `     ,. `          .    .  '  @@@@#    #   .,.                                      
`              `.`   `..   .           `  #  @@@@`     @@                                           
'#+#'#+#+#'#+########'#####'#+#+@#####+#'#'#+######@##@+@+@+@#@###+@+@+@#@#@@#@+@+@#@#@#@#@@#####@+@#@+##@#@#@@#@@#+@#@@@@##'#+@#@@+@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@
@#@+@#@#@'@#@@#@#@@#'###+#+###+#######@+#+#'##@#@###@#,@+@#######+#+@+@@@#@##@#@#@@@@@#@@#@#@#@#@#@+@#@#@#@@@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@#@#@#+@#@#@@@##@###@#@@##@@#@#@#@##@#@@@#@
'@+#'#+#+##@#@###+#;#+@##+#+@###@@@@+@+#+@+@#@#@#@@@@#@;@#@#@@#@#@+##@@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@#@+@+@##+@#@#@#@@@@###@+@#@@@@#@+@+@#@@@@+##@###@@#@#@#@@@@#@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@
#+##@+@+@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@@@@@
##+#;@+@+#'@#@#@#@@###@@@@@+@#@+@@@@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@#@#@@+@#@#@#@@+@+@+@@@@+@+@#+;++@+@#@#@#@#@@@#@@+@#@+@#@@@@#@+@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@###@+##@@#@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@#@#@@
#+#+@+#+@'@+@+@@@#@@@@####+@##+#@###@#@+@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@#@##@#@#@+@#@@#@#@+@#@#@@#@##.,,#+@+@+@+@#@#@#@@#@#@+@+##@@@@#@+@#@#@@###@#@@#@#@#@#@#@@+@#@@@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@
'@+#'@+#+#+##@#+@#@'#+##@##+@+#+##+#'###'#+##@###+#+#:@+@#@#@#+#'#+@#@#+@##+@#@@#@#@+;,,'#+@#@;@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+##@#@@+@+@###@@###@#@@###@+##@#@@###@#@@#@@#@##@#@#@@@@@@
@+#+#'@+#+#+@###@@###@#@###@##+@###+@#@+#+@+@##@#@##+@+@#@@@@##+@#@#@@###@+@#@@#@#@#,,,,++@+@#@+##@@@#@@#@#@+@+@@###@+@#@#@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@#@#@@#@#@@@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@
+#+#'@+@+@+@#@@+@#@##+@###@#@#@#@@@#+@#@#@#@##@+@+##@'@#@#@#@@+#+@#@#@##@#@#@@@@+@#@',::;#+@#@#@#@#@#@@#@+@#@#@#@#@@+@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@##@@@#@@@@@@
#+#+#####+####'#+#+#+#+#+#+@###@###'##@###@#@@#@#@#@+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@:,:,'#@#@#@#@@@@@##@+@+@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@+@#@#@@#@##+@@@@@@+@#@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@
####+##+#####'#'@+#'#;#'#+######+#+#+##########+@'@+#'@@@###+#+@#@###+@+@#@@@@#@+@#@,:,:'@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@##@@#@@@@@@@@
@###@#+#'#@###;###+@+@+@+@+@#####+@+@@#@###@+@#@+@+@#@@@@@@+#+##@@##+@+@##,,:##+#+@#:,:,+#@@#@@@@';:##+##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@+@###@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@
#@@@##@#@@@#@+@#@#@+@#@#@#@##@#@#@+@##@#@+##@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@.,.:.'#+@@@,:,;'@@@@#@':;:;;#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@+@#@#@#@#+@#@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@@@
+#+###+#'@#@+#+@#@#@+@###@###'#'#'@#@#+#+###+#'@#@#@##@@@##+##@#+#+@#@+@@',:,,..;#@@:,;:##@@#;;,::;.'#+@#@#@@#@###@+@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@#@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
#+#+#'#+##@.#+@#+###########+#+#+#+##+#+#+#'#+#+###@##+#+@'##@###+@+@+####;,,,,,.;'#,;,;;#@':,::::`:#+@#@##@####+@+#@@@##+@#@@@##@###@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@@@@@
'#+@+@'#'###+##@###@#@@###@#@+@#@#@#@@+@+##@#@+@@@##@+@+@+@##@+#+@#@#@@####';,,,,,;';:::+#:::;,,`,'#+####+#'#+#+@+#+##+#+@#@#@#+#+@#@@@@#@+@#@@@##@###@#@@@@#@##@@@@@@@
@+@##'@+@##+@+@###@#@@#@#@##+@#@#@@@@#@###@#@#@@@##@+@#@+@#@##@+#+@#@#@@@@+@+#,:,::+:::,#,:,;..:#+@#@@@@#@+@+@+#+@##@##+@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@@@@###@#@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@
+#+#+#'#+#'#+###+'#+#+###'+'++######+#+#+##@+####+#+@+@+@#@##@+@+@#@@####+@#@#@':,:';,,:+;,:.;+@####@##+#+#+@###@#####+@@@@#@#@#@#@@@@###@#@@@@@##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@
@#@#@+@#@+@#@##@'##@##'#+#+######@#+#;@+########+#'#'#+@+@###'#+##@#####+@#@##@##::':,:,',:,+@##@@@@+@+#+@+@#@#@@##@#+##@@#@##'@#@#@@#@+#+@#@@##+#+####@@##@##@#@@@@@@@
+##@+#+@#@+@#####+@#@+@+#+#+##@@###@+@#@#@##@+##@+@+#+@#@##@+##@@#@##+@###@@##@@##+#,,::',;###@#@###@##+@###@#@@@@@@+##@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@
##@#@+@#@#@#@@#@+##@##+#+##@#@##@###@+@#@####@#@+@#@+@#@#@@+@+@#@@#@+@#@+@#@@@@#@#+',,::#,;#@##@@@@@#@+@+@#@@@@@@#####@#@@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@#@@@##@#@#@#@#@#@@##@@#@@@@@@@
##+#+#####+@#+#+#+#+#+#'#'#+##+#'#'#;+#####+#'#:#+@+###@@@##+@#@#+###+@#@@@##@#@+:.'.;,;;;,;##@#@###@#@#@@@@@@@@#####@@#@#@###@#@@#@#@##@@@@#####@@@@@###@###@@@@@@#@@@
@#@#@+#########@+#'#'#;#+####@#+@+#+@+@@@@#@#@#@+@+@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@#:,:,::;:#,;:;#+####@#@#@#@#@@@@@@+###@@@#@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@@@@###@#@@@@@##@##+@@@@@@@@@@@
#@#@#@######@+#+@+@#@+######@###+#'#+#+'''''';';'''''+++#@#@#@@@#+@#@#@#@@@@#@#,,,,:.::'#::;::'#@+@##+##@@#@#@#@#@###@@#@;@#@+'''''';''''''+@#@###@@@###'''''@@@@@@#@@@
+###+#+#+#+#'#+#####+######+#+#'#;'''';';';''';'''''''''''';+##########@#@##@#.,,.,;::::+';:;,.++#+@+##@@@#@@###@#@+@#@###'''''''''''''''''''''#@@@#@#@'''+''@@@#@##@@@
@######+@+@+@+@+##@#@#@#@##@#+''''''''''';''';';'''''''''''''':'#+@#@#@@@@#@#,,,,.#@,;:;'##;::::'#####@@@@@@#@#@#@@##@@#'''''''''''''''''''''''''+@#@#''''+++@@@#@#@@@@
#@@#####+##@#@#@#@#@#@#@@###';';';'''';';''''';'''''''''''''':;,;'#@#@@@@#@',,.,,+#@::;;####;:,::'#@#@@@@@#@@@;+##@#@@'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''+@'''''+'+#@@@@@@@@@
#########+#+#+@+@#@#@#@#@#'''';';'''''';';''''';'''''''';''';::,,:''####+@;,,,,,#@##,:::#####:;::;'@@@@####@@,,:###@#''''''''''''''''+++'''''''++''''''''++'+#@#@@@@@@@
##+##@+#+@##+@##########'''''''''''''';'''''''''''''''''''''':,,,,:''@@@@',.,.:#@@#@,,:;###@#@;;:::'@#@#@#@#:,:;:+#'''''''''''''''##@@@@@@+''+''''''''''''+'@#@@@@@@@@@
##+#@+####@'@#@#@##@@@+'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''';:,:,::''#@+,.,.:#@@###,,,;@#@#@##:':;;;@#@#@+,,::,,@'''''''''''''''##@@@@@##@#++'+'''''''''''@@#@@@@@@@@@
##+@####+###@#@@@####'';''''''''''+''''''''''''''''''''''##'''';,:::,'';,,,.;#@@#@#@,,,;#@#@#@@@'':;:+@#@;,,;:.'#+'''''''''''''+#@@@@@@@@@@#@#''''''''''''##@#@@@@@@@@@
#+#############@##'#'''';''''''####+#;'''''''''''''''''@@@@@@+''',,,::;,:..:#@@@@@#@,,.'@@@#@###@:;:::##,,,,,:#@+'''''''''''''+#@@#@@@#@@@##@@+''''''''+''#@#@@@@@@@@@@
#@#@@@#@#@@@@@#@@#+'''''''''''@@####+@'''''''''''''''''#@@@@#@+''':;:::::,:#@#@@#@#@::,;#@@@#####@;:,;::,,:,##@'''''''''''''''##@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@''''''''''+#@@@@@@@#@#@@
@@@##@@@@@##@#####'''''''''''######+##''''''''''''''''@#@@@@@#@'''':::,,,:'@@@@@@#@@:,:;@@@@#####@#:,:;:,:,+#@'''''''''''''''@#@@@@@@@@##@@@@#@#'''''''+'#@@#@@@@#@#@@@
#@#@#@@#####@##+#''''''''''''@##+#+##@''''''''''''''''@#@@@####@''''::,,:'''@@#@#@@@::,.#########@@@.,,,:'@@#+''''''''''''''+@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@###'''''''''#@@@@@@@@#@@@@
##@@+#+##@##+#+#''''''''''''###'###+@#''''''''''''''''@@@#####@@@''::,,,''''+@##@@@#',;,##@#@#@@@@@@@,,,:'#@''''''''''''''''##@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@@#'+'+''''@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
##@@###@#######+''''''''''''@########@''''''''''''''''@@@#@##@@@@':::,,;'''''#@@@@@@.:.:+#@@#@@@@##@@+,:::#+''''''''''''''''#@##@##+##@#@@#@#####''''''''#@@@@#@###@@@@
@#@####@######+''''''''''''##@###@@###''''''''''''''''#@##+##@@@@',,,,''''''''@@@@@#,,::##@#@#@@#@@@#@':,:,''''''''''''''''+@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@+@@@#'+'''''@@#@#@#@#@@@@@
@#@####@#####@'''''''''''''#@###@@@@#@''''''''''''''''@@@##@@@#@@,,,:'''''''''@@@@@@.,,:##@###@###@@@#@;:.,:'''''''''';''''@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@#'''''''@@@@@#@@@@@@@@
######@##@#@#@'''''''''''''@####@#@#@#''''''''''''''''####@@@#@#,.:,;'''''''''@@@#@#:,:,#@@@@@#@#@@@#@#@,:,:;''''''''''''''@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@'+'+'''@@#@#@#@@@@@@@
@##@#@@@@#@##'''''''''''''+@#####@@@@#+'''''''''''''''#@@@#@#@#'.:,:'''''''''''##@@@:,:;##@#@###@+@#@#@##,,,:''''''''''''''#@+@+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@#@#'''''''##@#@###@#@@@@
#@###@####+#''''';';'''''''+@+@#@#@@@@'''''''''''''''+@#@@@#@##,',,';'''''''''''@#@@:,,'+#+@+#+@#@#@#@+@#'::::';';''''''''#@###@###@@#@+@+@@@##@#@'+'''''#####@#@#@@@@@
#@@@#@##@#@#';''''''''''''@#+##@+@#@#@'''''''''''''''#@@@@#@#@+',,;;'''''''''''''@@@:,,;#+@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@#::::;';'''''''';#+#'#+@##@##+#####@#@#@#'''''''++@@#@@@@@#@@@
###+########'':''''''';'''+######;#'##''''''''''':,';@#@#@@#@+##,;'';''''''''''''#@@;,:'+###+@#@#@#@#@#@@'':,:,'''''''''''@@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@@@'''++''#@#@@@@@@#@#@@
#@#@+@#####'''''''''''''';+#@##@##+@+@''''''''''',,,:+@@@@#@+,+#.#''';'''''''''''@@@,;,'#+@+#+@+@#@+@#@#@'';::::;''''''''':;#+@##@#@#@+@@@@#@#@@@@#''+'''@@@@@@#@#@#@@@
#@@+##@##@#''';'''''''''''#@@###@+@+@#'''''';';',,,,,.'##@@+..:`+#;';'''''''';''''@@;,,+'#+@+@+##@+#+@+##'''::,,;;'''''';:.,'##@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@@@@'+'+'+#@@#@#@+@#@#@@
@##@+@#+@+@;''''''''''''''@####@+@#@#@+'';';''''',,,:.;,+#+:.,.:++'''''''''';';'''@#..,;#+@+@+@#@#@#@#@#+''';:,:.''''':::,:,;'@##@+@'##@@##+@+#@#@#''';''+@+######@#@@@
+##+@#+#+#;''';'''''''''''+###@##+@#@@'''';';';''';:,:,;.:@...,###;';'''''''';';''@@,,,''#+###+##@#@+##@'''''::,,:'':,,,,,.,'###@#@+#+@@#@#@#@#@@@#'''''''@@###@#@#@#@@
@+###+#'#+''';'''''''''''''#'#+#'####@''';';';';'''';,',;,,,.:+'@'';'''''''';'''''##::,;#+@##+#@@@@#@@@@'''''',,,:;:::,:,.##@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@+''+'+'+@#@#@@@@@@@@@
+@+###'#+@''''''''''''''''##@+@+@+@#@#+';';';''''''''+';.;,.:,##+#;'''''''';''''''+#:,.;'#+#+##@########''''';;,,,:,::,,:+#@#@@##+#+@#@##@+@#@@@@#+'''+'++@@#@#@@@#@@#@
@+@+#'@+@+';'''''''''''''''####@+##@#@#'';'''''''''''+#@,:,,.##+@+'''''''''''''''''#,.'+#+@###@@+@+#@@#+'''';'':,:,:,,';'+@@####'@#@#@@+#+##@@##+#+''''''+##@@#@###@+@#
+#'#+#+#++;''''''''''''''''####+#+@+@##''';''''''''''#@#+:,`,##@+''''''''''''''''''@.,:+##@@#@@@@#@@@#@'';''''';:,:,;';''@@#@#@+####@@#@#@#@@@@+##@'++++'@#@@@@@@#@#@#@
@#@#@+@+@''''''''''''''''''##@#@+@#@@@+'';'''''''''''@+@,,..'+#+@''''''';''''''''''#,,:'@####@@@+@#@#@#'''''''''::,,;''''@##+#+@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@##+++'@#@#@@@@@@#@+@@
:+;#'#:+'':'''''''';''';''';+'#'@+#+##;';';'''''''''';@'.,..##+#+'''''';';'''''';''@.;.'+#####@#@+@##+''''''''''':,,:';''+#+#+@#@@#@##+@#@@@@##+##@#@#@@+@#@@@@#@####+#
@+#+##@+@''''''''';';';';'''+@#@+@####+;';'''''''''';'#:..`++'#+#''''''';';'''''';'#,.,'##@@+@+##@#@+''''''''''''::,:;'''@+@#@#@#@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@@@@@#@@
##+@'###+'''''''';';''';''';#+@#@#@##@+'''''''''''''''@`...#@#+@+'''''''';';'''';''#,:.++@###+@+@#@#@'''';''''''';:,,;'''#@+@+@#@#+@#@#@#@@+@#@#@@#+@@@##@@#@#@#@#@#@#@
@+@+#'@+@''''''''';';';';';';####@###++;'''''''''';''';:..+@#+#+@''''''''';''''''''#,.:+@@#@#@#@#@#@+'''''''''';'',,,:'''@+@+@#@##@+@###@@#++@++@@@+@+@+++++#@#@#@###@@
##+@'@#@#'''''''';';';';';';'+#+@###+#''''''';''';';'':.,.####'@+'''''';';';'''';';#.:.#'@###+#+@+@#@+''';'''''''':,,:;'''@+@+@#@@###@#@@@@+@+#+##@++##+++@+@#@#@#@##@@
@##+@+@#@''''''''';';';';';';++##@####';'''''''''';'''.:.++##+#+'''''';';'''';';''++:,:'#@+##@+@#@+@+@''''''''';''',,,:'''#@#@@#@+@+@#@@#@+++#@+@#+++#@+@#@+++#@@@@###@
##+@+@###'''''''';';';';';';''####+#+#''''''';''';';',:.,'##+@+@+'''''';';'''';'''##,:,+###+#+#+@#@#@@''''''''''''':,::'''@@@@#@+@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@'+'@#@@@@#@@@#@#@@@
####@#@##+;''''';''''''''''''#####@+##''''''''''''''':,:;####+@#@''''';'''''';';''@#:.,'##+@#@#@@@#@#@+''''''''''''':,:;'+@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@##'''+'@@@@#@@@@@@@@#@
###@#@###+''''''';'''''''''''@#@+#+##@'''''''''''''';:,,###@#@#@@'''''''''''''''''@+,:,+@#@#@#@@@@##@@'''''''''''''',:,,''@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@++'''+@@@@@@@@@@@#@#@
####@#####;';'''''''''''''';++##@+@###'''''''''''''',:,.#+#+@###+';'''''''''''''''#+;,,++@+@@#@#@+@#@##''''''''''''':,,:''##@###@@###@#@#@@#@#@#@@'''''++##@#@@@@#####@
###@#@#@##''''''''''''''''''##+@#@#@##'''::;'''''''':,,;+####@###'''''''''''''''''@+::,+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@'''''''''''''',:,''#@@@@@@@##@#@@@@@@#@#@#@+''+++###@@@@#@@#@#@@
#####+####''''''''''''''''''#+#+@+@###;'',,,,:;'''':::;;#;####+#;'''''''';';'''';###::.+#+@+##@#@#@##@@'''''''''''''':,:,'@@@@#';,,'#@@@@@@#@@@@@@'''''++@#@#@##@####@@
##@#+####+#'''';''''''''''''+#+#+#+@##'';::,,,,,:;',;:,####@#@@#'''''''''''''''''#@'::;##@#@@@@#@#@#@#@'''''''''''''':::,'##':,,,,,,+#@@@####@@@@@+''+''#@@@##@#@@#@@@@
#@#@@####@#'''''''''''''''''+'#+##@###;';::,,,,,,::::::'#;+#+@##,:::::,::+#;::::::#+::;';',:'';''+''++';;;;;''''''''''::,:.,:::,::,,+#@@@@@@#@@@@@''''''@@@@#@@@#@#@@@@
##@##@#####''''''''''''''''''####@@@##''''';;,,,:::,:,+@###@#@@#,:;:::::#,'#:++:,'#,+'#+''+#'+:';###:,:;::::'''''''''',:::,::;::,`.'+@@@@@@##@#@@#'+'+++@@@@@##@@#@@@@@
#@+#+#+#+###''''''';''''''''+#@#@#+#+#'''''''''':::;::+###@#+@##,::::::,#,+#,'+:,##,+'+:;;##';,';###:,::;:::;''''''''':,::,,:.`'+#####@@@@@##@#@##'++'+'@@@@@@@@@##@@@@
@#@#@###@@@@'''''''''''''''''@@@#@@#@#'''''''''''':,::+@#@@@@#@#,,:,::,,':##,+#:''#,:++;++#++;,++###:::;::::''''''''''',:,:'##@@###@@@@@@@@##@@@@+'++'''#@@@@@@@@##@@@@
##@#@#####@@''''''''''''''''@#@@#@####'''''''''''':::;###@@@@###''''''''''''++''#+@';:;####+'+'''';;:.,,.,,.''''''''''':,::#@@####@@@@@@@##@@@@@@'''''''@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@
#@@@@####@@##''''''''''''''''@@@@@#@##'''''''''''':,:'#@@#@@@###'''''''''''''''+#@@+,:'#@##+@#@#@#@#@#@@#''''';''''''''.:,:+@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@#@#@#+'+''''##@#@###@##++@@
@@@#@#@@@@#@#''''''''''''''''@@@@#####''''''''''';:::''@#@@@#@#@'''''''''''''''###@'::;+#@###@#@#@@@@@@@@'''''''''''''',,,:#@@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@'''+'+'#@@@#@#@#@###@@
##@@@@####@##'''''''''''''''+##@@####@'''''''''''::,:;'@##@@#@##'''''''''''''''@#@@':;'+##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#'''''''''''''';:,:+#@#@#@@@@@@#@##@@@@@'''+''''@#@#@#@@@##+@@@
###@@#@@@@#@#+''''''''''''''##@#@+####''''''''''':,:;''####@####'''''''''''''''###@':::+##+##@#@@@@@#@@###'''''''''''''',::+@#@+@#@@@@#@#@###@@#+'''+'+'@@#@#@#@###+@@@
##@#@##@@#@#@#''''''''''''''#@#@###@@#''''''''''',:,;''##@@@###@'''''''''''''''@#@@+:::'##@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#@'''''''''''''':,:;#@#@#@@@@#@#@@##@@#@'+'''+'+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@@
##+#+###+#+###''''''''''''''@####+##@#''''''''''':,:;''+###+##@#'''';'''''''';##@@@;;:,+'@+@#@@########+@+#''''''''''''',:::##@+@@@@@@#@#@#@@#@+''+'+'''@@#@#@#@#@@#@@@
@#@+@##+#+@#@+''''''''''''''+@+@#@#@#+'''''''''';:::'''###+#+###''''';'''''';'#@#@@':,:'##@@@######@+@#@+@+'''''''''''''::::+##@#@@#@#@+##@@@#+#'''+++'+@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@
'#+#+';#'#+##@''''''';''';''@+#+#+@#@''''''''''',:,:''';#+@+@#@#'';';';''''''''#@@#,:,,#+#+@@@@@##@#@#@+@+##+''''''';'''::::'+@+@@#@#@#@#@#@@+@'''''++++#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@
@+@'';';#+@##@+''';';';';';@+@###@@##''''''''''':::;;';'+#+####++;'''''''';'''#@##@,:.:;####+#+#+@+#+###+#+@#'''''';''''':::'#+##@@#@#@#@@@@+@#''''++'+'@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@
+#'''';''######'';';''''';'+@#@#@##@+''''''''''':::'''''#+@#@##@+'''''''''''''@@@@#;,,,##@#@@@@#@+@+@###@#@@@'''''''''''';:,;+@+@@#@###@@@@#@#+'+'++'+'++@@@@@@#@+##@@@
@#'''''''+@@#@#''''''''';'+@#@#@###+'''''''''''':::';';''####'#'@''''''''';'''###+@,,,:+####+#+#+##@+@####@###'''''''''+'::,;@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@+@'+'++'+'''+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@
#@'''''''####+#'''';';';''@#@#@#@#''''''''''';';,,:;''''''@@#@#@#'''''''''''''#@@@#:.,,##@@+@#@#@+@#@@@#@@#@##''''''''''',:,;'@#@@+@#@##@#@+@'''''++'+'+'@@@@#@#@+@@@@@
@@'''''''@#@+@'';';'''''''@@@#@#''';',,:;;'';'';:,,''''''''+#+#+@+''';;;;;;':;'+#'+':.;+####+#+#+@####+######+#'''''''''':,,:'#@@#@@@@@@#@+#''''+'''''+'+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@
#@'''''''@@#@+''''';'''''#+###''''''':;;:;,:#,,,:,:;''''''''+#+@#@''',:,,,,,'::,#,#+.+:':';,'.+;:.:,;,;##@#@+@+@''''''''',:,;;'+#++#++'####'+''''''''+'+'@@#@#@@@#@@#@@
@@'''''''#+##''''''''''''@#@''''''''',,;+:;,+:,:,,:'''''''''';@+@@#'',,,,,::#:,,,.#+:;;':';,:'##,:::::'+#+@'@+@#@'''''''',,::::::,:;;::+''''''''''+'+'+'+@###@@@####@+@
#@#'''''''++''''''''''''###'''''''''',,':;:;,,:,:,:''''''''';';'###+',,,,,:,+:;:::##:;,':''.;;##;,;::,+#+@+#+#+@@@''''''':::::::::,::::;''+''+'''+#''+'++#@#@#@@@@@@#@@
@##''''''''''';''';''''##@@'''''''''''''''''':::,,;'''''''''''''+@##+;:';';;;';';::,:,'':+,;:',::;:;:,;##+@+##@##@#'''''';:::::::,::::.;;''''''''##+''''''###@@@@@@##@@
#@##''''''''''''''''''####+'''''''''''''''''''',,,;'''''''''''''+@##@+''''''''''''':,::'###+##@#@######@+@+@#@#@@@#@#'''+;:::,:,,,:::::;'''+'++@#@#@+++++'@#@@@@@@@##@@
@#@##''''''''';''''''@@@#@+''''''''++'@@#@##'+':,::'''''''';';''#@+@+#;'''''''''''':;:.+#@#@#+#####+#+#'#+@#@#@@######'''',::;'''''';';'''''+'##@#@#++'+''#@@@@#@##+@@@
#@#@@#+'''';';';';'+###@@#+';';';#+@#@@#@#@+@+@.:.+++''';';';''+@+#'@+#+#+;';';'''':,:,+@#@##@#@##+@+@#@+@#@@####+@+#+@##',::;;';'';';';';'++@+#+#+@''''';+#@@#@##+#@@@
@####++++';';';''++++#@####;';';+++++++#+#+#'#+,,;'++'+++'';++++'@+###+++++'+'+++++:,,:@#####+@+@+@+#+@+@###@##@+#+#+#'##+,:::;;';'';';++####+#+@#@#+''';''@@@@@@###@@@
####+'+'+'+'+'+++'#++++#@@++;;;++++++++'+++'++#.,,++++++'+++'#++#'@'@+++++'+'+'#++#::,:+@#@@@@+@#@+@+@#@+@@#@@@+@+@+#+##++:,,''#+#++#+++#+#+'+'##@@@#'';';'+@@#@+#+#@#@
@@#+++++++'+++++'+'+++++###++'#'+'++#++++#+#'##,.:;+++++#'+'#++++#+#+++++++++++++++:,,,#@##@@#@#@#@#@+@#@#@##@#@#@+#+####+:,:'#+#+##+#+#+##+#+#+#@@##''''''+@@@#@#@@@@@
#@#++'+'+##'#'+'+'+++++++##+'++#++'#+++'+'++#+#,:,;'++++'#'++++;#+#+++++'+;++#+++'#.:.,+###@+#+@+#+@+@+###@#@#@+@+#+#+++++:,,''#+##+#++###+#'#+######+''''''+@@+'';#@#@
##+++#+++@+@+#'#'+'#++#++##+#'#+#+++#+++'+'++##,,::++++'#'+'##+#'@'#++#'++#+####+@#:,::###@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@+#+++#++#+:.:'#####@+@@@@##+#+#+######;''+'++++'''''@@@
#++++'#'++#+@+#'+'#++++++++#'#+#+#+#+++'+++'#+#++;;++++#'#+#+@#+@++'##++++'#+#+#@#@.:.,##@#@#@+@#@+@#@@#@#@#@#++#+#+#+##'+:,.++@@@@#@#@@@@##+#+####+#+#'''+'++++'+'++@@
+#+++#'+'#+#+#+#'+'#+#++++#+#+@##+#+#+++'#'++#+#+#++++++#+#+@###+#'+#'+'+'++####+@#:.,:@##@#@+@#@+@#@#@#@@#@#@##+###+##+#++;'+@@@@#@#@@@@@@#######+#+#+'''''';';''''+#+
@+#+#'+'#+@+###+#+#+#++++++#+###+###+++++'+'++#+++++'+'+'+;#+##;#;+'++'+'+:++#+@#+@`:,:+'#'#'''@+#+##@####@+@++'++#+#+#+'#'#+##@@##+@#@#@@#@+######+#+#+'+++'+'+'+'+##@
+#'+'+'+'#+@+@##++'#+++'++#+###+##@##++#'#+#+#+#+#+#+##++#@+@###+#+##+#'#+#+##@@#@+:,::##+@+@'@#@#@#######+#'#'#+####++'++#+##@@##+@#@@@@+##@@####'++++##'';''+'''+'##+
@+#+#'#+#+@#@##+#+#++#+#+#+##@#####+#'+'#+#+#++#++++'+++'#+##@#+#+#++#'#+#+####@@#@`:.:++#+@+@#@#@##@##+##@+@'#+####+#+#'#+##@@@@+@#@@@@@@+@#@###+#+#+###@'+'+'+''+#@#@
+###+#+##@#@#@#+#+#+#+++#+#+@###@@##+#'#+#+####+#+#+#'+'@#####+#+#++#+#+#+##+#+@+@#:,,:'#+@##+@@##@#######+#+#'####+#+#'#+#+#@#@+@+@##@###@#@@@#+#+#+###@##'''+'+'+#+@@
############+#'+'+++'++++#+########+#'#'#+##+#+#+#+#'#+######+#.####+#+###+##'#+@+@.;,:#'###+@##@###@+##@+#+#'++##+#'#'#'#+####+@+####+#+###@###+++++####@+###'++##+#@@
#@#@#@@#@#@#@##+#+#+#+#########@#@#@##+######+#+#+#+#+###@+#'@'##+#+#+#+++##'++@+@#;:::'#+@#@####@#@#@#@#@##+#+####+#+#+#####@#@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@+######+@#@#@@@@#####@@
@##@@#+@+#@@'#'#++'++##++#++#+#+#+#;#+#+#+##+#'#+#+#+#+@#'#+#+#+##+#'###+##+#'#'@@@:;,:###@####'#+#+@#@+#+######+#+#+#+#+###@#@#@#@@#@#@@@@#@#@##########@@@@#######@@#
#@##@#@+#+###'#+++#+#+#########@+@+@#######+#+#+#+####+###+@+@+@#+#+####+###+#+##@@,,,:+@@#@#@#@#@#@@@#@@@#+#+#+#+######+#+@+@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@@@########@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@
###@##+#+###+#+#+#+#+##+###+##@#@#@#@#######+#+#+####+##@+@+##@@+#+#+####+#'#+#+@@+,,,,#@##+@+@+@###@@@#@#######+########+####@@@@@@+@#@@@@#@#@@######+#@@@@@###@@@#@@@
##@#@+@+#+#+#+#+#+#+##+#+#++'#+#+@+##@###+#'#+##+#++'#'#+#+####++'#+##'#:+'#+####'@.,.:++#'#+#+@####@######+#+#'#+########+@#@@##+##@#@@#@#@#@@@@####+##@#@######@#@#@@
#@####+#+#+#+++#+#+#++#+#+#'#+@+##@#####+#'#+##+#+#'#+#+@+@#@@##'#+##+#+#+#+####@@#,.::##+##@##@#@@####@##+#+#+######+#+#+##@@@####@#@@@##@@@@@@@#######@@@@##@@@##@#@@
#+###+#+#+#+#+###+#+##+#+#'#'@+####@#####'#+####+#'#+#+#+@#@@#@+#+####+#+#+#####@#@,,,;####@@@#@@@@#@#@#;##+#+######+#+####@@#@###@#@@#@###@@@@@#+######@#@####@###@#@@
######+#+#+#####+#+####+#+#+##@#@#@@#@##+#+####+#+####@#@@@@#@#######+###########@@,,:'###@#@@@@#@@@@##@###################@@#@#@@@@@@#####@@@@@@#########@##@@@@###@@@
@#@#@###################+####@#@@@#@###+#+#+####+#+##################+############@.:,'#+###@@@@##@@######################@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@########@#@#@@@@#####@@
@#@#@#@#@#@#############++###@@@@@@@#@############+###@@@@@@@@########+##########@@.,:'####@@@@@@@@@@#@###################@@@@@#@@@@@@###@@@@#@#@#####+#+@@@@#@######@@
#######@#@###########+#'#+#####@#@#@#@##+######+#####@@@@@##@####################@@,,:;###@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#############+####@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@#@#@#@######@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@
@#@#@###@@@##################@@@#@@@@@################@@@@@#@####################@@:::'####@@@@#@#@#@#@#########+#+######+@+@+@#@@+@+#+@@#@#@#@#@@##+#+#'@@#@###@###@@#
##@######@############++#########@@###++##############@@@@@@#@@@#####+######+#+##@@;,;;#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@###########+#########@###@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@@@##@####@@@@@#@#@@@##@
##@####@@@##################@@@###@@##################@@##@#@@@@@###+######+#####@@@##+@#@@#@#@+@#@#@#@#####@##@#####@@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@
                                                                                               
 

Notes
1 Pearson, John. The Life of Ian Fleming. London: Jonathan Cape, 1966. 234.
2 Behrman, S. N. Portrait of Max. An Intimate Memoir of Sir Max Beerbohm. New York: Random House, 1960. 282.
3 Pearson 244.
4 Ibid., 245.

No comments :

Post a Comment