Thursday, 18 February 2016

Up At the Villa (1941) by W. Somerset Maugham – Analysis

Up At the Villa by W. Somerset Maugham

Up At the Villa (New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1941)

It has been quite some years since I first read Up At the Villa. Not one of the more prominent among W. Somerset Maugham's books and I wasn't very impressed by it. Nevertheless, now, after being more familiar with his works as a whole, the novel gives a very different feel.

Barely over 200 pages, Up At the Villa is a page turner. It is meticulously constructed and one can see with what ease Maugham navigates among his characters and the unfolding events.

It is perfectly legitimate to close it and forget about it, having been entertained for a few hours. That was what I did the first time.

This time I can't help but see page after page of rich plot and character development, but the most moving of all is Maugham's examination of the human condition, which is still so highly relevant today, 70 years afterwards.

In this post, I will discuss several things I find interesting in Up At the Villa: how Maugham uses setting for character building and linking it to plot development, and as usual, I will talk briefly about the first edition.




Analysis: The Villa and Mary Panton

The beginning of the novel demonstrates how Maugham manipulates his subject. Character introduction is done by a mixture of description of the setting and flashbacks, moving unobtrusively from past to present and combining time and space. Everything converges in the consciousness of the protagonist, Mary Panton.

Nevertheless, it is the villa that Maugham starts off with. It is the place for the unfolding events, but the way it is incorporated into the story makes it almost like a living character, the ageless, passive observer, not unlike the ominous river in many of Maugham's Far Eastern tales.

Indeed, the title Maugham has chosen focusses on the villa. The novel was first serialized in 1940 in Redbook as The Villa on the Hill (a great horror movie title).

According to Stott, Maugham had the plot in mind 25 years before its publication, dating it around 1915, prior to Maugham's vast success in contributing to magazines. It was originally written as a story, but no one wished to publish it (A Bibliography of the Works of W. Somerset Maugham, London, Kaye & Ward, 1973, 288).

The novel opens with the villa. It tells in a few words the story of its first occupant.

The villa stood on the top of a hill. From the terrace in front of it you had a magnificent view of Florence; behind was an old garden, with few flowers, but with fine trees, hedges of cut box, grass walks and an artificial grotto in which water cascaded with a cool, silvery sound from a cornucopia. The house had been built in the sixteenth century by a noble Florentine, whose impoverished descendants had sold it to some English people, and it was they who had let it for a period to Mary Panton. (1–2)

What follows is a seamless blending of Mary's past and present, intertwined with the description of the physical space of the villa, its garden, rooms, frescoes by the younger Ghirlandaio.


Cappella sassetti, Stigmata of Saint Francis 02
Detail of the landscape in The Stigmata of St Francis by Domenico Ghirlandaio

These descriptions at the beginning are more than simply giving a feeling of setting. Its location at the top of the hill, the beautiful garden, the dimension of the rooms, the breathtaking frescoes all play an important part in the actions that follow; one may say their fantastic and romantic qualities accentuate the clash with reality.

Writing about Chekov, Maugham makes a point about the former's advice that anything that has no contribution to the story should be left out, although he is using it as a rebuke towards one of Chekov's own stories. If in the description there is a gun hung on the wall, it has to fire before the story ends (Preface to East and West, New York, Doubleday & Co, x).

Edgar Swift and Rowley Flint – Two Men in Sharp Relief

Mary is at the crossroad to a new stage of life. After an unhappy marriage, her financially embarrassed widowhood is about to end with the imminent proposal from Edgar Swift, a friend of her father whom she has known all her life. Though the age difference is significant, Edgar's devoted love to her for 15 years is moving.

Edgar himself is handsome and successful: "athletic and distinguished," "good tennis player, a fine rider and an excellent shot" (10), with all the charms of an Englishman. Reliable, competent, and full of strength of character, Edgar is the backbone of the British Empire. Also at the verge of a new stage of his life, shortly to be named the governor of Bengal, he intends to start it with the woman he has loved all these years, Mary.

However, Mary hasn't quite made up her mind. She knows that she doesn't love Edgar, but it is no longer love that she seeks.

Edgar is going away for three days, and Mary is taking the time in his absence to consider his offer.

It is during these three days that Mary experiences her transformation.

Meanwhile, another character is introduced, Rowley Flint, a womanizer who isn't even very handsome, but he has charisma, which is further heightened by his bad reputation.

Rowley acts as a stark contrast to Edgar. Though charming in his own way, he is irresponsible and unreliable, does no work since he doesn't have to. Nothing seems to be serious for him.

Mary's acquaintance with Rowley is short, which started only after her sojourn in Florence. Soon we are treated with a proposal from Rowley too, which Mary takes as a joke.

The irresistible beauty of Mary can easily turn into a cheap romance fiction, but that is naturally not Maugham's cup of tea. His heroine is filled with romantic visions, but not exactly of the most conventional kind.

Her romantic vision is not to choose between the reliable and trustworthy man (who happens to be handsome and attractive too) or the card-shaper type, charming but resistible.

Romance for Mary is to be the good Samaritan. Instead of waiting again for a man to make her happy, she is ready to sacrifice herself to make a man happy, to be significant, to produce meanings.

"But I've sometimes thought that if I ever ran across someone who was poor, alone and unhappy, who'd never had any pleasure in life, who'd never known any of the good things money can buy–and if I could give him a unique experience, an hour of absolute happiness, something that he'd never dreamt of and that would never be repeated, then I'd give him gladly everything I had to give." (65)

Of course she gets what she wishes for (beware of that one).

The World Above and the World Below

At a dinner party held by Princess San Fernandino, the talented singer that the Princess wants to show her guests falls unduly sick and a substitute violin player is sent instead.

The poor soul plays awfully; Mary feels sorry for him and gives him an extra big tip. Later on on her way back to the villa she meets him again. Realizing that he is destitute, she invites him to the villa to see the garden and the frescoes that he so much admires but never has the chance to see.

It is at the villa that two worlds crash. While Karl Richter, the illegal Austrian refugee turned amateur supply violinist, feels delightfully awe-stricken by the beauty of the villa, Mary suddenly comes in touch with a reality that is beyond her.

Like Charley Mason in Christmas Holiday (1939), Mary is shocked and filled with pity, but there isn't much else she can do about it.

Unfortunately, such discrepancy still exists, or even more so, in our world. Maugham's WWII scenario is transcribed to our time in an even bigger magnitude.

Mary's desire to confer once-in-a-life-time happiness to a deprived human being is activated.

Different from Charley, her kindness takes another form. Maugham seems to be commenting on the giver's conscience, addressing the blurry issue of where kindness comes from, which can make all the difference.

Mary's kindness is from seeing herself being kind. Here, Rowley's observation about Edgar as "a great man posing as a great man" (200–1) can be applied to Mary. It is to be an unrepeated act of kindness, and the poor soul is supposed to be so thrilled that he will remember it his whole life. The arrogance is self-evident.

But she comes to realize this too late. Karl interprets her willingness to give herself to him as an act of love, not an act of pity. Finding himself lifted to heaven only to fall down harder, he shoots himself with Edgar's revolver, given to Mary for her protection.

It is impossible for the two worlds to comprehend each other. The timeless villa in a moonlit night provides a time and a place, but there is no transcendence. On the contrary, the contact has proven fatal.

The consequences for Mary could be dire. She calls Rowley, the unscrupulous, to help her. It is too late to call the police (since she has sent her maid away saying that there was nothing wrong when she enquired about the noise of the shot) and there is Mary's reputation to think of. Together they dispose of Karl's body.

Mary begins to recognize Rowley's good qualities, his grit. Her intention is still to marry Edgar, but first she would have to tell him the truth of what happened.

Edgar, being the gentleman that he is, accepts what Mary has done and doesn't withdraw his proposal; however, he can no longer take on the position as governor of Bengal that he covets because it wouldn't be honest. Instead, he is going to retire.

Mary, knowing his ambitions and aspirations, bites the bullet and tells him straight off that she can't possibly be the wife of a retired civil servant, in order not to hinder him.

Rowley comes back into the picture and proposes to Mary again. She takes the risk and accepts the rover.

I admit that it sounds cheesy, but it lets you close the book without feeling conscience stricken.

The question you may be tempted to ask is whether Mary has learnt her lesson. She has jumped from deciding to marry Edgar to marry Rowley, in spite of his reputation. In a way, she realizes that there is more to him than meets the eye (after all, he reads Dr. Johnson...).

Perhaps she has learnt that appearance can be deceptive. Edgar, though behaving as he is expected to behave, is only living up to an image that he has assigned to himself.

Karl couldn't be assumed to take her action with gratitude simply because he was a starving and illegal refugee.

She herself can look ravishing at lunch the next day after dumping the dead body of a practical stranger whom she had slept with and who ended up killing himself.

Similar to Christmas Holiday, the subject Maugham has chosen to deal with is weighty. It is about inequalities, about unbridgeable human experiences.

Even though Mary aims to do good, she has done more harm instead, due to the impossibility of communication between her world and Karl's world.

There is no redemption. Karl is dead and forgotten, as victims always are. And Mary will carry on with her life.

Nonetheless, it can be as light a novel as you wish it to be. A little romance and action in beautiful Florence.

The Villa as Symbol

I mentioned before that the villa was almost like another character. Ghirlandaio's fresco that I have chosen may very well had been in Maugham's mind when he was writing the novel.

Mary doesn't really belong to this world, as the villa is lent to her by friends. Rowley seems to see that and questions her decision to marry Edgar. She does enjoy it, but after Karl's suicide, she only wishes to get away.

Edgar moves about with ease. It is his world.

Rowley, on the other hand, has to walk up the steep flight of steps every time he visits, getting short of breath. It is a world that he can get to, but with an effort.

Karl would be like the man at the bottom of the fresco, who can only look up at the villa. He can only ever reach there through Mary, herself a passer-by, but he doesn't belong. The transgression means death.

So, what world is this? A beautiful but unreal world. The world of an image. A world in which Edgar can continue posing as Edgar. A world in which Mary learns that it is not real in the hard way, that her kindness is only an illusion.

Up At the Villa – First Edition


Up At the Villa by W. Somerset Maugham, First Edition
Up At the Villa by W. Somerset Maugham, First Edition

As Maugham's later work, there is no problem getting a copy of first editions with a reasonable price, even with dustjacket. The US edition came out a little more than a month ahead of the UK one. No special edition appears to have been produced.

Up At the Villa can be read at My Maugham Collection Concordance Library (MMCCL).

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