Friday, 30 October 2015

The Magician (1909) by W. Somerset Maugham - First US Edition

The Magician 1909, first US edition - W. Somerset Maugham
The Magician (1909), first US edition - W. Somerset Maugham

The Magician (New York: Duffield & Company, 1909)


Yet again, I am going to talk about a book that no one seems to like, not even W. Somerset Maugham himself, but then often the creator is his own hardest critic.

I do have an excuse to go over this book once more. I recently purchased another copy of it (I had two already), which is the first American edition with a wicked decoration on the cover.

I will not talk about the story itself, because I have talked about it before. (See the end of this post for my discussion of two other editions)

So, what is interesting about this edition? Besides the nice cover with two cobras interlocking their tails, there are some textual differences, Maugham's association with Duffield & Company, and the ending.

Textual Differences


Stott mentions that Maugham revised the US edition of The Magician. The passage that he talks about is as follows:
Oliver was the local magnate, and his wealth would have made him an easy topic of conversation even without his eccentricity. The landlady roundly called him insane, and as an instance of his queerness told Arthur, to his great dismay, that Haddo would have no servants to sleep in the house: after dinner everyone was sent away to the various cottages in the park, and he remained alone with his wife. (London: Heinemann, 1908, 236)

*

Oliver was the local magnate and his wealth would have made him an easy topic of conversation even without his eccentricity; but the only definite circumstance which Arthur gained was that his mother had been in a lunatic asylum for a quarter of a century. The discovery gave a new turn to his fears. It had struck him before that Oliver was so unbalanced that he might sometimes be pronounced insane, and this suggested that things might be even worse. The landlady roundly called him insane, and as an instance of his queerness told Arthur, to his great dismay, that Haddo would have no servants to sleep in the house: after dinner everyone was sent away to the various cottages in the park, and he remained alone with his wife. (New York: Duffield & Co., 1909, 236)
This addition must have presented a pagination challenge, since the UK and US editions have the same number of pages. Hold your horses. It was promptly remedied by the space available at the end of the chapter. Peace is restored.

The interesting thing would be to examine how such spacial distribution affects the author at the time of introducing revisions. Would Maugham have given up this tiny information to spook his readers more if Duffield & Co. had to reprint the rest of the novel, assuming that Maugham changed his mind after Heinemann's was all ready? Or it could have been otherwise, that Maugham had that originally, but then he decided to cut the sentences; but since both copyrights were issued at the same time, Duffield & Co. had everything done faster (although published later), and only one edition could be corrected properly.

More interesting things are to come, which may support the latter argument. These particular added sentences are not in the later Doran edition in 1921 (often listed as first edition, 1908; please beware), nor in the later edition with the "Fragment of Autobiography," after 1956.

This leads us to the second point I want to talk about.

Duffield & Co.


The Magician 1909, first US edition, title leaf with Duffield & co symbol - W. Somerset Maugham
The Magician 1909, first US edition, title leaf with Duffield & co symbol - W. Somerset Maugham

Lamentably, at the moment I can't give you more information about this publisher. At first attempt, I can't find anything much about it. It appeared to be active around the first few decades of the twentieth century. Maugham's copyright, in this particular case, is listed, in the first UK edition, as for both UK and US simultaneously: "Copyright, London, 1908, by William Heinemann / and Washington, U.S.A., by Duffield & Company," although the US edition didn't come out until 1909. He must have sold the book to both at the same time.

The Magician (1908), first UK, Heinemann copyright page - W. Somerset Maugham
The Magician (1908), first UK, Heinemann copyright page - W. Somerset Maugham

And let's look at the US Duffield and Company's copyright page:

The Magician 1909, first US edition, copyright Duffield & co - W. Somerset Maugham
The Magician 1909, first US edition, copyright Duffield & co - W. Somerset Maugham

Remember that Maugham wasn't very happy about Heinemann at the time of The Merry-Go-Round (1904), nor with his agent William Colles (whom he duly dismissed). He was stuck with Heinemann for The Land of the Blessed Virgins (1905), and then ventured into business with someone else for The Bishop's Apron (Chapman and Hall, 1906). He stayed with Heinemann eventually for English editions till the end, but he probably wasn't too pleased with The Baker & Taylor Co. either for the American publication of The Explorer (1909). So, there he was, with Duffield & Co. for The Magician, but he didn't publish another book with them, if I am correct, except that they did print another of his work indirectly, the play Smith, rendered into novel by David Gray in 1911. At the end, he found George H. Doran for Of Human Bondage (1915), and stayed with him until its subsequent merging with Doubleday and beyond.

Ending of The Magician


Now the ending. Don't get too excited. They are all the same. What I find curious is its comparison with Daphne du Maurier's Rebecca (1938). This is the fantastic ending of Rebecca:
The hills rose in front of us, and dipped, and rose again. It was quite dark. The stars had gone.

"What time did you say it was?" I asked.

"Twenty past two," he said.

"It"s funny," I said. "It looks almost as though the dawn was breaking over there, beyond those hills.

It can't be though, it's too early."

"It's the wrong direction," he said, "you're looking west."

"I know," I said. "It's funny, isn"t it?"

He did not answer and I went on watching the sky. It seemed to get lighter even as I stared. Like the first red streak of sunrise. Little by little it spread across the sky.

"It's in winter you see the northern lights, isn't it?" I said. "Not in summer?"

That's not the northern lights," he said. "That's Manderley."

I glanced at him and saw his face. I saw his eyes.

"Maxim," I said. "Maxim, what is it?"

He drove faster, much faster. We topped the hill before us and saw Lanyon lying in a hollow at our feet. There to the left of us was the silver streak of the river, widening to the estuary at Kerrith six miles away. The road to Manderley lay ahead. There was no moon. The sky above our heads was inky black. But the sky on the horizon was not dark at all. It was shot with crimson, like a splash of blood. And the ashes blew towards us with the salt wind from the sea. (London: Virago, 2003, 834–6)
Now, compare it with The Magician's ending:
"Let us wait here and see the sun rise," said Susie.

"As you will."

They stood all three of them, and Susie took in deep, joyful breaths of the sweet air of dawn. The whole land, spread at her feet, was clothed in the purple dimness that heralds day, and she exulted in its beauty. But she noticed that Arthur, unlike herself and Dr Porhoët, did not look toward the east. His eyes were fixed steadily upon the place from which they had come. What did he look for in the darkness of the west? She turned round, and a cry broke from her lips, for the shadows there were lurid with a deep red glow.

"It looks like a fire," she said.

"It is. Skene is burning like tinder."

And as he spoke it seemed that the roof fell in, for suddenly vast flames sprang up, rising high into the still night air; and they saw that the house they had just left was blazing furiously. It was a magnificent sight from the distant hill on which they stood to watch the fire as it soared and sank, as it shot scarlet tongues along like strange Titanic monsters, as it raged from room to room. Skene was burning. It was beyond the reach of human help. In a little while there would be no trace of all those crimes and all those horrors. Now it was one mass of flame. It looked like some primeval furnace, where the gods might work unheard-of miracles.

"Arthur, what have you done?" asked Susie, in a tone that was hardly audible.

He did not answer directly. He put his arm about her shoulder again, so that she was obliged to turn round.

"Look, the sun is rising."

In the east, a long ray of light climbed up the sky, and the sun, yellow and round, appeared upon the face of the earth. (309–10)

It would seem that the characters are going to and looking at the opposite directions at the end, but the exact contrary was what drew my attention. Both unusual houses were burning furiously, with Rebecca and Maxim racing towards it, and Arthur and Susie turning away from it, all mistaking the fire at first for the sun, all leaving a part of a nightmarish history "behind."

It is a fun story, worth reading still, especially if you are a fan of Dracula and Frankenstein. Suddenly I realize Halloween is coming. What is more fitting?

Different digital editions of The Magician are available on the Free eBooks - Novels page.

For this particular edition, it is still available, price-wise as a mid-range Maugham first edition, perhaps even at the high end, considering that this is not a true first.
                                                                                                 
                                       `'++',......                                              
                                    `:+;;..,:;+;;''+;;,`                                         
                                   .:+';;'+###@#@#'###++;`                                       
                                 `:'''+'+++########@#####++'',.`                                 
                              ,:;'+''++#+;;;;;;;';+###########+',                                
                            ,;'';'+#''::;:::::;';'+'+'+++###+++#+:.                              
                          `,';::++#+':::,,,,::;;;''+'+++'+#++@#@@+:                              
                          .;';;'++##+::'+'';;;;:;::#+#+''++#++#+@#+.                             
                         ,++#+#@#@##++#++'+'''+'''++#+''+';''';##+#+`                            
                        .+#+++##+######++''+'++'''+#++'''';'''';+###'                            
                       ,'++'####+###+#';'''++#+'''+'++;+';::;;'''@###`                           
                     `,;'#@+##@######+'+##+++#++'##+++'''':::;;;'+###;`                          
                    `:'''++#####@##+#+++++''+'+'+#@##+''':.:,:,::;##+#;                          
                   `.:'+++###+@###@###++''''+'''++#+'@++;:,.,...:,;;##+,                         
                  `,:''+++####+##@##++++++++###+++@#++++;,.,.,..,.,;;'+:                         
                  ,:;'''####@@###@##+++'+'+#+++++++#+#+#',:,,.....,.,:,;.                        
                 :;;';++++@+##@#####+++++#++++++@##+++++';;,..,,,,,,,::::                        
                `':'''++++++######@#+#+'+++++'++######+'';:,..,:.,,,:,,:;`                       
                :'';++##############+#####+##@########++#':,.,,.,,,.:,,,,,                       
               `;+';+###############+##+''+'+++'+#####+++;;:,.,,,,,,:,,::;`                      
               ,:''++######+######+#++''''+'+####@#@##++'';,,,,,,..,,,,:,:.                      
               ,;:;+#++##+########;:::;;''+#@+###@#@##++'':,,.::,:;;:,;;::,                      
               ':;;;+####+#+####+#;;;:;++'''+##+#+####;';.....,:,;:':,;;++;`                     
              ,'':;+#@+#######@+@#+',,;;'+++'####@##+##'':.,,,,,,:';;;;+#';.                     
              :;;'++#+#+@########@';,::;;:+#####+@+##+#;;,.,,,,,.,:::;;'++':                     
             `;'+;+############@##'+'';:;++++#'+';#++'';,,,,,,:,::;;::,;''':`                    
             ,';;##++#+#####+'+###+++++';',;##+##@#+'';:,....`,,:;;:,,:;;';;,                    
             ,''+#+#+####@+######+##+@'+;;'+++##@##'';:,:,.,,..;:::::::::::,;                    
             :'+#++###+#####@@##@@@+''+';';@####++#':;:,,,.....,:;:;,::;';:.,                    
             ;+##+#+########@####+++;;;:;;;+##+++#+'::,.....,,,,,:;,:::;;':.,`                   
             '+#####@+####@####@#+;;.,;';+;+++'+++'';,.,.```,..,:,:.,,:;;;::,:                   
             +++###@####@#@###+++,.....;'';''+++++';:.,```.`.`..::,,,,::::;,.:                   
             ++#+###########@##'..;:,.,.,;'++''##++;,:`.`...,...,:,.,,:;;:::,:                   
             '++++#@######@###+::;'';;,,,;;++#+##';;;:````....:,,,,.,:;;'#':;;.                  
             +++###@######@@@++.;+;:.'';,'+++###+:,,.:..`,,.`.:,,:,,:;:;''';:::                  
             ;+#########@@@###+.:::.;++#++###@@@@::,:,,,..,.,,,,,,.::''';,,;':'                  
             '#+++#######@####+.;.`.'+++'#@#+#+##':,,.:,:,..,::,,,::;':...,.,;`                  
             ;##+@########@@##+,:,,.#+'#+@@#'+'++::...:...,,,::,,,;;,.#@;`.,;.                   
             :++++######+##@++'::..,++#@++++'';+#:,...,,...,,,;:'+#@++##+,:,'.                   
             ;###@@######@###+;.,..;+##',,;::::'':,...,...,:::;''+'''++++'',:.                   
             ;#######+######+'+....,++;.,,,,,,,,::,.,,,,:.::::;;;;';;::'+':;,,                   
             '####'#+#++##@##+'....;+:,,,:;,,,,:;;,,,::::,::::,::;;;;';+':,::.                   
             ;#####+#+#++#@##';,,..:';::;;::,,:::,,,,:;;:::::::;;;:;:';;'.:;:..                  
              '#+##@+++''+#'+;:..,.,++#'+';,::::;,,;,,,,,::;;;,::':::;:;::,::,.                  
              +######++'''';;;:,..``;';;;;;::,:;;:,.,.,,:;:':;:;:::::::;;..,:,,:                 
              +++#####'++;;,.,,..`.,..:,:;::,,;;':,..`.,,,;;;;'';+';:';';,,.:;,;.                
            `:'++##+#+#++';,,,,,.......,:;::,,,;;,,......,:::,;'++';:;;':...::,,,                
           `;+'++++#+++++':,:,..`.......,;:,..,:::...,.,.,::,:;';+';'';::,,.:::.:`               
           ,@#+++####'+'':,`..,,...,..,,,;.,....,..,..`.,,,...;;:;:::::::;';;;,,,.               
          `+#@@@####+'+':,,,,,,,....,..:';,,.,....,.....,,,...::;,.,,::,:';::,,,:.               
          '####++++#+##;,:,.,...,,:...,,,.,..........`,,,:`...,,:,...,,,;::;;;:::.               
         .++#######+##',,,,...,,,,....,,..,..,`..`...```.,,.,.,:;..,....':,:';::;:               
         ;#####+'#@#+::.:`....,,,,...,..:;'.,``.`....,.`,,,....:,,`,:::,';++@#+'';               
        :##+####+.@#+:....`...,:..,:.,,,';':.`........,..,..,.,.....,,,,+''+@#+':`               
       ;'##@#+++#+;';:,..``.`.,,...,:,..;'':,`,,.`..`.,,,`...,,.,`.,,:,:+++##:.                  
      ,';+#@+###+@:::,,,,,.`.......:,,,,,#+';:;...,.`..,,,;.,,,.`:.,.,,;'';;,                    
     :''+#+@#@###++,,,,.,.....,,.,,,,,,,,'+''+++':;.,.,,..',:,,..:,,.::''::;`                    
   `'''++#@#'+#####+,,......,:,,,,::,,,,,;;;'+##';;,:,,,.:,;,,,`.::,,:;;';;:                     
  .'+#+++##@#@##+##@+,..,,.,,,,:,,:',,....:::'''::`.:...,..;:;:.,,`..,;;;+''`                    
`:;'+'++++#@@##+#####;`,.,.`.:,,,,:+,.`..,:;,';;,.`.;;,....,:,.`,`.`,::,,:;#.                    
'#+;;:#++########'+@@#,.`..,.,.,:,:',...,.,:;';;;.`.,:,,,.`,:,,`......:#''';                     
+'+:;''+;++@#######'##@;....,:.,.,,::,..,...;'''''+';;;;;::,.........,,';::.                     
+''';'+++++##+########++:,..,,...,,,,......,:;'+';';:,;;::::,,.,,.,.,,,,:':`                     
++++++#++'++#@#@##++#####:.,,...,,..,:;,,,.,,:;;;'#';::;;:,,,.,.,.,.,,,.,;+                      
+'+#####+######++##@######,,,,,,,:,,,:;';:,,,:;;'++':,.,::,,.,,,..,,,,,,,,+                      
############+;+#+#########':..,:,,,:.,,;':,.,:,;'+#',.,.,,,,.,.,,,,,,:,,.,+.                     
+''+@+#@@###'+###+#+'+#++#+;`..,:,..,,::;,,.,...:'';;::,......`.,,:::::,,,,;                     
#';'+'+############++++##++#+....,..:,::::,,,..`,+#;:::,,;;..,..,,:;;'::;;:;,                    
#+';'''+##@#@+###++'++#++'+'@+...,..,:;::.:....``:';:,,,,:,,.....;;''';::;';.,                   
+#@#############+######++'#+#+'..`.,.,:,,:,,,,.,,:;',,,,,:,,:,,,:'++';+;;;+'.:;                  
+##+########@#+#######'++#@'+++'...,.,,,.::,:,,,,,::,:.,:,,,:::;;:'+'';;'++':,;:                 
####@#################++#''+###++.,.,.,:,,::::..,.,::,;::::::;:;':;'+';+#+'':,:;                 
#+####+###########+##++##''++@+##+.,.::,,::,;:,.,:,:::;';+';;;:;;;'+++'++++;,,,:                 
++#++####++#######''++#+##+#######+.,:..,:.:,;:..'':;;;':;;;;;::'''+'+;;++':,,,,                 
+##@+###+####@###########++++@@###+#..,.,``.:;;;;':,.:;;;,.,:,:''+++';'+#@'',;,,                 
+@@@@@###++#######+###+##+#@#+##@@#@+.`,.,..:;;''#;:,,::.``..`.''+#'';#+++;:,,..                 
###@@@##########@###+#+@#++#+@#@#@@#++...,.;:''';++;';+,,,,...,:;:+''''+';:::::,`                
+################@#####+##@@#@##+##@##',...,;';;;+';:';:,.,::,::::';':''';,,:.:::                
#++'+##@#@@#####++#+#####@##@@+#++@####',..,.;'''',;;;;';,,,;;:;;:';':;';;,.;:,,'.               
++''++@#+#####+###+#+#++++###@#@#+#@##++;,.:,,:;;':++'+;;::::;;;;;;';;;;;,,,,,,,'.               
+;'++#+#+##+############+#+#####+###+###@;,,,,,,''++++++',:;:;;'+;;;;;;;:,:..:.,+.               
++';#+###+++#####@+#@#+#@###@@#@+@@+######,,,,,.'''++#+'':;':;;'''+;;;;:,.,,.,,,'.               
'+'+#++++##+#+##+######@#+#######@##++++#++,..,.,#'@##'+#@;'';:'++;;::,``.,,`..,;:               
'''+##++#++#+'+#@#########@@###+#@@##@@+#+#:,,,,.+++'#+'+:'++;:;';',:::,..,....,:;               
';;'+++#@#+'++####@###@@@@#@++#@#@@+##'@+#'+.,,..++##+#+'++@+';:;;::;;:.,...,,..,;               
''+++++++#++'##'@#######++####'###+###+#####;,,..;##++#+++####'''';''::.......,,,'.              
+++++++'++#+++#+###+###@#+############+###+##:...;++@#+##'''##+:'';:::,.....`.,,,;.              
+;'++#+++#+''+###########+#####@@#+###+##+###'...'#+##'+#+.,'+':,,,,::,,.....`.::'.              
+'+#++#+++'++#+###+######+#####++##'####+#####:,.'#+###+###+++,.,..,......,,,,,:'+:              
+#+#####++;:;'+++'+#######++''###'+''#++##+#@##::+#@#+#+;++#++,.............,..,..'.             
++#@###+#+'+;'#+;+++###+###++#+'+'+;#####@@##++.;@#,+####+#+#+,....,......,..,,:..,,+,           
++######+++;+###+#++++'+##';;++++##'####@#####+';##@+##''++##+.`...,,`,,,.....,.:,,,:+           
####@@'+#++++###++##+##+####+++#';'+'+##@#@@#########++@+#+##@++'@@#++':,....,,,:,::,,           
#+###@##+#+#++####+#####+####+#@#++'++##++##@#'+##+####++#+#++###+####+#+#+;:,.,,..,:,           
+#+@@@###+#@######+####++++++#+++;+'+###'###+#+'##@##++++++#######+####+###+#+++'.,,,,.          
+###+@##++@###########++++'+++'+;;;'+###+++###+#@++###+###+###++#++#+##++##++##@##+:,,,          
+#@#####+#@##+++######++##++#+#;'::+#####'##+####+#+++#+#+#+###+++'+#+###@##++@+#####+#,         
+@##@#@############++++#@###'++;+;;'@@+###@#'#+++#:+###++###+++###++#+'+###@###++#@#@@##.        
+##+@@#+++#+##+##@+##++#+@##++''';'+@##+###@#+#+#':++;##+#++'+##++###'#'++#@#@@@#######@+.`      
+#@#@@@##+###++###@###++'##+##+++:#+##''+@@++#++##';'++##++++###++#+'+#+#++;+##@@##@#@##@@##,`   
+###+#+#++####+######+'###+#+##+'#+##++'++#;#++@@,#+++#'++##++##'##+#+###+#+++#@@#@@##@#@#@@##'. 
##+++###++'+######+#+##++####+########+##+##+++#####+#'+++#####+###+'##++;#####+@#@#+@@@@##+#+#; 
'+++##+#+#+'+#@##+#+#++#+###+#+#########+++####+++##+#++##++##+#+###+##@+######@#@@@#@@##@+##+#; 
++++##+#++++++++##+++++######+##@@#######@@###+#++##+#'+#+##+#+##@@####+##+'+##+'##'####@@###+#, 
#+#+''+'#'++##+#+####+#+#@@#+#+####+#@####@@####++#+####+#+#####++###++##++#@+++##+@@#@#@#'###+` 
++###+++++#####+#@@@#+#++#@#+@+##@+@#@@####@#+#########+#+#++#++###+#++++##@#+##+##@@@#####@##+  
+#####++'@#####+@###+#'#++#+++##@####@###@@###++#+##+##++#+##+###'+#####++#@@###@#####@@@#####,  
######++#######@@#+#++#+#+#++#++###@+##:+#####++'+@#+#+##+++'++##+####+#++#+###+#+##@@@@@@#@@#`  
#++#+#+#++#+#####' + +++ # ,'#+++#+#+###+;####++###+##++#+++#+'+#+#####++#+#####@#####@@##+##+   
+##+#++###'#++'++  #.++#`+  ##++###+#####'+#+#'+#'+++++###+##++####@#########+#+#@##+#@#@##@#'   
#+++++#+++++++'+#  #++####  `++;'+#########+##+++#+'++#+##+#+##+######++#########@#@##@@#@###;   
###++#+##+####+##  #'+++@#  `+++#+###+#####'@##+'#@+++##+###+#++#####+####@####@##@#####@@###+   
+##++#+##'@###@#@  ### .++  '#+++########+,'++#+#@+##+++###+##+#######+#'@#+#+#####@@#@@#####'   
#####+@+##+#+##+## ++##;;' `+#'####@#;#+'+##@####;##+'+#######+##@##+#+++####+#+###'@@@#@###@'   
########+##+###+###++++'+,;+#+#####+#++++'+@##+##+#++#++##+@#++####+##+#+##+'+#+#+##@@@######;   
+++++#########++##++##++##++#'#++###++#'#+#@@+###+##+#+'#++#+##+@#####################@#####+'   
#+#####+#++####### .  : # ' ++#+######+#+#########+#+#+####+##++##@##+####'#+######@###@#+###'   
##+######++#######.+:.#.#.#.+'++##@##+++##+#+###+#+#+###+#########+#+++##+++#######@@#@@#@++#:   
+#####@#+####    ++#++###+##`   ##@+####+##+##@###+##++#######+++###+####+####+#######@@#@#+#:   
#++#+###@####+###+##+#+##+##+##@@#@#'+##+;''+##@##;+##+;+++++#+#+#+###+#+#@####@###@#@@######;   
####+###+##+#####+#+#+#+###@###+##@#+#++'#+'##+#########'#@++++++######+####++@#@##@@####@###'   
++++'+#####+#########+#+++#@#@#+#@#@##++###++++#+''##+##++####'++'#+####++++#+#@##@@##@#@@###'   
+#+###+#++###+@@########@##@#+#@#####@###++#++;#++#+#++##+'+##+#++++####+####++'+#+#####@@+##:   
#######+++###+#######+##+##+#+###@+###+++##;'@++'+#+++##+;''+'+#+'+##+++#++##+'+####@@@##+###,   
####@###++############++##@@@@@#+##@#'##+###@#+++#+##+'++++:#+'##+###++++#+##++@##@@+###@##@#.   
###@######@##############+@#+@@###+######+++#++'###+#++'+#++#+++######+##++#+###+#####@@####'    
+########@###@##+####+#####+#'######+#++#@'#+++''+#+';'++++####++###+#####+'+############++#'   `
##+#@######@#####++@####+##########@#+#++##+++++++##::#'#'++##@#+#+#######+++##+++#+#@#####@#` `,
############'#######+####++##++###'###++#+#'+##++@##+.+##+#'#++#+++#######++#+++'#######@###+;,,,
'#+#'#+#+#'#+########'#####'#+#+@#####+#'#'#+######@##@+@+@+@#@###+@+@+@#@#@@#@+@+@#@#@#@#@@#####@+@#@+##@#@#@@#@@#+@#@@@@##'#+@#@@+@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@
@#@+@#@#@'@#@@#@#@@#'###+#+###+#######@+#+#'##@#@###@#,@+@#######+#+@+@@@#@##@#@#@@@@@#@@#@#@#@#@#@+@#@#@#@@@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@#@#@#+@#@#@@@##@###@#@@##@@#@#@#@##@#@@@#@
'@+#'#+#+##@#@###+#;#+@##+#+@###@@@@+@+#+@+@#@#@#@@@@#@;@#@#@@#@#@+##@@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@#@+@+@##+@#@#@#@@@@###@+@#@@@@#@+@+@#@@@@+##@###@@#@#@#@@@@#@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@
#+##@+@+@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@@@@@
##+#;@+@+#'@#@#@#@@###@@@@@+@#@+@@@@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@#@#@@+@#@#@#@@+@+@+@@@@+@+@#+;++@+@#@#@#@#@@@#@@+@#@+@#@@@@#@+@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@###@+##@@#@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@#@#@@
#+#+@+#+@'@+@+@@@#@@@@####+@##+#@###@#@+@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@#@##@#@#@+@#@@#@#@+@#@#@@#@##.,,#+@+@+@+@#@#@#@@#@#@+@+##@@@@#@+@#@#@@###@#@@#@#@#@#@#@@+@#@@@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@
'@+#'@+#+#+##@#+@#@'#+##@##+@+#+##+#'###'#+##@###+#+#:@+@#@#@#+#'#+@#@#+@##+@#@@#@#@+;,,'#+@#@;@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+##@#@@+@+@###@@###@#@@###@+##@#@@###@#@@#@@#@##@#@#@@@@@@
@+#+#'@+#+#+@###@@###@#@###@##+@###+@#@+#+@+@##@#@##+@+@#@@@@##+@#@#@@###@+@#@@#@#@#,,,,++@+@#@+##@@@#@@#@#@+@+@@###@+@#@#@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@#@#@@#@#@@@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@
+#+#'@+@+@+@#@@+@#@##+@###@#@#@#@@@#+@#@#@#@##@+@+##@'@#@#@#@@+#+@#@#@##@#@#@@@@+@#@',::;#+@#@#@#@#@#@@#@+@#@#@#@#@@+@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@##@@@#@@@@@@
#+#+#####+####'#+#+#+#+#+#+@###@###'##@###@#@@#@#@#@+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@:,:,'#@#@#@#@@@@@##@+@+@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@+@#@#@@#@##+@@@@@@+@#@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@
####+##+#####'#'@+#'#;#'#+######+#+#+##########+@'@+#'@@@###+#+@#@###+@+@#@@@@#@+@#@,:,:'@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@##@@#@@@@@@@@
@###@#+#'#@###;###+@+@+@+@+@#####+@+@@#@###@+@#@+@+@#@@@@@@+#+##@@##+@+@##,,:##+#+@#:,:,+#@@#@@@@';:##+##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@+@###@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@
#@@@##@#@@@#@+@#@#@+@#@#@#@##@#@#@+@##@#@+##@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@.,.:.'#+@@@,:,;'@@@@#@':;:;;#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@+@#@#@#@#+@#@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@@@
+#+###+#'@#@+#+@#@#@+@###@###'#'#'@#@#+#+###+#'@#@#@##@@@##+##@#+#+@#@+@@',:,,..;#@@:,;:##@@#;;,::;.'#+@#@#@@#@###@+@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@#@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
#+#+#'#+##@.#+@#+###########+#+#+#+##+#+#+#'#+#+###@##+#+@'##@###+@+@+####;,,,,,.;'#,;,;;#@':,::::`:#+@#@##@####+@+#@@@##+@#@@@##@###@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@@@@@
'#+@+@'#'###+##@###@#@@###@#@+@#@#@#@@+@+##@#@+@@@##@+@+@+@##@+#+@#@#@@####';,,,,,;';:::+#:::;,,`,'#+####+#'#+#+@+#+##+#+@#@#@#+#+@#@@@@#@+@#@@@##@###@#@@@@#@##@@@@@@@
@+@##'@+@##+@+@###@#@@#@#@##+@#@#@@@@#@###@#@#@@@##@+@#@+@#@##@+#+@#@#@@@@+@+#,:,::+:::,#,:,;..:#+@#@@@@#@+@+@+#+@##@##+@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@@@@###@#@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@
+#+#+#'#+#'#+###+'#+#+###'+'++######+#+#+##@+####+#+@+@+@#@##@+@+@#@@####+@#@#@':,:';,,:+;,:.;+@####@##+#+#+@###@#####+@@@@#@#@#@#@@@@###@#@@@@@##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@
@#@#@+@#@+@#@##@'##@##'#+#+######@#+#;@+########+#'#'#+@+@###'#+##@#####+@#@##@##::':,:,',:,+@##@@@@+@+#+@+@#@#@@##@#+##@@#@##'@#@#@@#@+#+@#@@##+#+####@@##@##@#@@@@@@@
+##@+#+@#@+@#####+@#@+@+#+#+##@@###@+@#@#@##@+##@+@+#+@#@##@+##@@#@##+@###@@##@@##+#,,::',;###@#@###@##+@###@#@@@@@@+##@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@
##@#@+@#@#@#@@#@+##@##+#+##@#@##@###@+@#@####@#@+@#@+@#@#@@+@+@#@@#@+@#@+@#@@@@#@#+',,::#,;#@##@@@@@#@+@+@#@@@@@@#####@#@@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@#@@@##@#@#@#@#@#@@##@@#@@@@@@@
##+#+#####+@#+#+#+#+#+#'#'#+##+#'#'#;+#####+#'#:#+@+###@@@##+@#@#+###+@#@@@##@#@+:.'.;,;;;,;##@#@###@#@#@@@@@@@@#####@@#@#@###@#@@#@#@##@@@@#####@@@@@###@###@@@@@@#@@@
@#@#@+#########@+#'#'#;#+####@#+@+#+@+@@@@#@#@#@+@+@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@#:,:,::;:#,;:;#+####@#@#@#@#@@@@@@+###@@@#@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@@@@###@#@@@@@##@##+@@@@@@@@@@@
#@#@#@######@+#+@+@#@+######@###+#'#+#+'''''';';'''''+++#@#@#@@@#+@#@#@#@@@@#@#,,,,:.::'#::;::'#@+@##+##@@#@#@#@#@###@@#@;@#@+'''''';''''''+@#@###@@@###'''''@@@@@@#@@@
+###+#+#+#+#'#+#####+######+#+#'#;'''';';';''';'''''''''''';+##########@#@##@#.,,.,;::::+';:;,.++#+@+##@@@#@@###@#@+@#@###'''''''''''''''''''''#@@@#@#@'''+''@@@#@##@@@
@######+@+@+@+@+##@#@#@#@##@#+''''''''''';''';';'''''''''''''':'#+@#@#@@@@#@#,,,,.#@,;:;'##;::::'#####@@@@@@#@#@#@@##@@#'''''''''''''''''''''''''+@#@#''''+++@@@#@#@@@@
#@@#####+##@#@#@#@#@#@#@@###';';';'''';';''''';'''''''''''''':;,;'#@#@@@@#@',,.,,+#@::;;####;:,::'#@#@@@@@#@@@;+##@#@@'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''+@'''''+'+#@@@@@@@@@
#########+#+#+@+@#@#@#@#@#'''';';'''''';';''''';'''''''';''';::,,:''####+@;,,,,,#@##,:::#####:;::;'@@@@####@@,,:###@#''''''''''''''''+++'''''''++''''''''++'+#@#@@@@@@@
##+##@+#+@##+@##########'''''''''''''';'''''''''''''''''''''':,,,,:''@@@@',.,.:#@@#@,,:;###@#@;;:::'@#@#@#@#:,:;:+#'''''''''''''''##@@@@@@+''+''''''''''''+'@#@@@@@@@@@
##+#@+####@'@#@#@##@@@+'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''';:,:,::''#@+,.,.:#@@###,,,;@#@#@##:':;;;@#@#@+,,::,,@'''''''''''''''##@@@@@##@#++'+'''''''''''@@#@@@@@@@@@
##+@####+###@#@@@####'';''''''''''+''''''''''''''''''''''##'''';,:::,'';,,,.;#@@#@#@,,,;#@#@#@@@'':;:+@#@;,,;:.'#+'''''''''''''+#@@@@@@@@@@#@#''''''''''''##@#@@@@@@@@@
#+#############@##'#'''';''''''####+#;'''''''''''''''''@@@@@@+''',,,::;,:..:#@@@@@#@,,.'@@@#@###@:;:::##,,,,,:#@+'''''''''''''+#@@#@@@#@@@##@@+''''''''+''#@#@@@@@@@@@@
#@#@@@#@#@@@@@#@@#+'''''''''''@@####+@'''''''''''''''''#@@@@#@+''':;:::::,:#@#@@#@#@::,;#@@@#####@;:,;::,,:,##@'''''''''''''''##@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@''''''''''+#@@@@@@@#@#@@
@@@##@@@@@##@#####'''''''''''######+##''''''''''''''''@#@@@@@#@'''':::,,,:'@@@@@@#@@:,:;@@@@#####@#:,:;:,:,+#@'''''''''''''''@#@@@@@@@@##@@@@#@#'''''''+'#@@#@@@@#@#@@@
#@#@#@@#####@##+#''''''''''''@##+#+##@''''''''''''''''@#@@@####@''''::,,:'''@@#@#@@@::,.#########@@@.,,,:'@@#+''''''''''''''+@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@###'''''''''#@@@@@@@@#@@@@
##@@+#+##@##+#+#''''''''''''###'###+@#''''''''''''''''@@@#####@@@''::,,,''''+@##@@@#',;,##@#@#@@@@@@@,,,:'#@''''''''''''''''##@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@@#'+'+''''@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
##@@###@#######+''''''''''''@########@''''''''''''''''@@@#@##@@@@':::,,;'''''#@@@@@@.:.:+#@@#@@@@##@@+,:::#+''''''''''''''''#@##@##+##@#@@#@#####''''''''#@@@@#@###@@@@
@#@####@######+''''''''''''##@###@@###''''''''''''''''#@##+##@@@@',,,,''''''''@@@@@#,,::##@#@#@@#@@@#@':,:,''''''''''''''''+@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@+@@@#'+'''''@@#@#@#@#@@@@@
@#@####@#####@'''''''''''''#@###@@@@#@''''''''''''''''@@@##@@@#@@,,,:'''''''''@@@@@@.,,:##@###@###@@@#@;:.,:'''''''''';''''@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@#'''''''@@@@@#@@@@@@@@
######@##@#@#@'''''''''''''@####@#@#@#''''''''''''''''####@@@#@#,.:,;'''''''''@@@#@#:,:,#@@@@@#@#@@@#@#@,:,:;''''''''''''''@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@'+'+'''@@#@#@#@@@@@@@
@##@#@@@@#@##'''''''''''''+@#####@@@@#+'''''''''''''''#@@@#@#@#'.:,:'''''''''''##@@@:,:;##@#@###@+@#@#@##,,,:''''''''''''''#@+@+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@#@#'''''''##@#@###@#@@@@
#@###@####+#''''';';'''''''+@+@#@#@@@@'''''''''''''''+@#@@@#@##,',,';'''''''''''@#@@:,,'+#+@+#+@#@#@#@+@#'::::';';''''''''#@###@###@@#@+@+@@@##@#@'+'''''#####@#@#@@@@@
#@@@#@##@#@#';''''''''''''@#+##@+@#@#@'''''''''''''''#@@@@#@#@+',,;;'''''''''''''@@@:,,;#+@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@#::::;';'''''''';#+#'#+@##@##+#####@#@#@#'''''''++@@#@@@@@#@@@
###+########'':''''''';'''+######;#'##''''''''''':,';@#@#@@#@+##,;'';''''''''''''#@@;,:'+###+@#@#@#@#@#@@'':,:,'''''''''''@@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@@@'''++''#@#@@@@@@#@#@@
#@#@+@#####'''''''''''''';+#@##@##+@+@''''''''''',,,:+@@@@#@+,+#.#''';'''''''''''@@@,;,'#+@+#+@+@#@+@#@#@'';::::;''''''''':;#+@##@#@#@+@@@@#@#@@@@#''+'''@@@@@@#@#@#@@@
#@@+##@##@#''';'''''''''''#@@###@+@+@#'''''';';',,,,,.'##@@+..:`+#;';'''''''';''''@@;,,+'#+@+@+##@+#+@+##'''::,,;;'''''';:.,'##@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@@@@'+'+'+#@@#@#@+@#@#@@
@##@+@#+@+@;''''''''''''''@####@+@#@#@+'';';''''',,,:.;,+#+:.,.:++'''''''''';';'''@#..,;#+@+@+@#@#@#@#@#+''';:,:.''''':::,:,;'@##@+@'##@@##+@+#@#@#''';''+@+######@#@@@
+##+@#+#+#;''';'''''''''''+###@##+@#@@'''';';';''';:,:,;.:@...,###;';'''''''';';''@@,,,''#+###+##@#@+##@'''''::,,:'':,,,,,.,'###@#@+#+@@#@#@#@#@@@#'''''''@@###@#@#@#@@
@+###+#'#+''';'''''''''''''#'#+#'####@''';';';';'''';,',;,,,.:+'@'';'''''''';'''''##::,;#+@##+#@@@@#@@@@'''''',,,:;:::,:,.##@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@+''+'+'+@#@#@@@@@@@@@
+@+###'#+@''''''''''''''''##@+@+@+@#@#+';';';''''''''+';.;,.:,##+#;'''''''';''''''+#:,.;'#+#+##@########''''';;,,,:,::,,:+#@#@@##+#+@#@##@+@#@@@@#+'''+'++@@#@#@@@#@@#@
@+@+#'@+@+';'''''''''''''''####@+##@#@#'';'''''''''''+#@,:,,.##+@+'''''''''''''''''#,.'+#+@###@@+@+#@@#+'''';'':,:,:,,';'+@@####'@#@#@@+#+##@@##+#+''''''+##@@#@###@+@#
+#'#+#+#++;''''''''''''''''####+#+@+@##''';''''''''''#@#+:,`,##@+''''''''''''''''''@.,:+##@@#@@@@#@@@#@'';''''';:,:,;';''@@#@#@+####@@#@#@#@@@@+##@'++++'@#@@@@@@#@#@#@
@#@#@+@+@''''''''''''''''''##@#@+@#@@@+'';'''''''''''@+@,,..'+#+@''''''';''''''''''#,,:'@####@@@+@#@#@#'''''''''::,,;''''@##+#+@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@##+++'@#@#@@@@@@#@+@@
:+;#'#:+'':'''''''';''';''';+'#'@+#+##;';';'''''''''';@'.,..##+#+'''''';';'''''';''@.;.'+#####@#@+@##+''''''''''':,,:';''+#+#+@#@@#@##+@#@@@@##+##@#@#@@+@#@@@@#@####+#
@+#+##@+@''''''''';';';';'''+@#@+@####+;';'''''''''';'#:..`++'#+#''''''';';'''''';'#,.,'##@@+@+##@#@+''''''''''''::,:;'''@+@#@#@#@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@@@@@#@@
##+@'###+'''''''';';''';''';#+@#@#@##@+'''''''''''''''@`...#@#+@+'''''''';';'''';''#,:.++@###+@+@#@#@'''';''''''';:,,;'''#@+@+@#@#+@#@#@#@@+@#@#@@#+@@@##@@#@#@#@#@#@#@
@+@+#'@+@''''''''';';';';';';####@###++;'''''''''';''';:..+@#+#+@''''''''';''''''''#,.:+@@#@#@#@#@#@+'''''''''';'',,,:'''@+@+@#@##@+@###@@#++@++@@@+@+@+++++#@#@#@###@@
##+@'@#@#'''''''';';';';';';'+#+@###+#''''''';''';';'':.,.####'@+'''''';';';'''';';#.:.#'@###+#+@+@#@+''';'''''''':,,:;'''@+@+@#@@###@#@@@@+@+#+##@++##+++@+@#@#@#@##@@
@##+@+@#@''''''''';';';';';';++##@####';'''''''''';'''.:.++##+#+'''''';';'''';';''++:,:'#@+##@+@#@+@+@''''''''';''',,,:'''#@#@@#@+@+@#@@#@+++#@+@#+++#@+@#@+++#@@@@###@
##+@+@###'''''''';';';';';';''####+#+#''''''';''';';',:.,'##+@+@+'''''';';'''';'''##,:,+###+#+#+@#@#@@''''''''''''':,::'''@@@@#@+@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@'+'@#@@@@#@@@#@#@@@
####@#@##+;''''';''''''''''''#####@+##''''''''''''''':,:;####+@#@''''';'''''';';''@#:.,'##+@#@#@@@#@#@+''''''''''''':,:;'+@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@##'''+'@@@@#@@@@@@@@#@
###@#@###+''''''';'''''''''''@#@+#+##@'''''''''''''';:,,###@#@#@@'''''''''''''''''@+,:,+@#@#@#@@@@##@@'''''''''''''',:,,''@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@++'''+@@@@@@@@@@@#@#@
####@#####;';'''''''''''''';++##@+@###'''''''''''''',:,.#+#+@###+';'''''''''''''''#+;,,++@+@@#@#@+@#@##''''''''''''':,,:''##@###@@###@#@#@@#@#@#@@'''''++##@#@@@@#####@
###@#@#@##''''''''''''''''''##+@#@#@##'''::;'''''''':,,;+####@###'''''''''''''''''@+::,+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@'''''''''''''',:,''#@@@@@@@##@#@@@@@@#@#@#@+''+++###@@@@#@@#@#@@
#####+####''''''''''''''''''#+#+@+@###;'',,,,:;'''':::;;#;####+#;'''''''';';'''';###::.+#+@+##@#@#@##@@'''''''''''''':,:,'@@@@#';,,'#@@@@@@#@@@@@@'''''++@#@#@##@####@@
##@#+####+#'''';''''''''''''+#+#+#+@##'';::,,,,,:;',;:,####@#@@#'''''''''''''''''#@'::;##@#@@@@#@#@#@#@'''''''''''''':::,'##':,,,,,,+#@@@####@@@@@+''+''#@@@##@#@@#@@@@
#@#@@####@#'''''''''''''''''+'#+##@###;';::,,,,,,::::::'#;+#+@##,:::::,::+#;::::::#+::;';',:'';''+''++';;;;;''''''''''::,:.,:::,::,,+#@@@@@@#@@@@@''''''@@@@#@@@#@#@@@@
##@##@#####''''''''''''''''''####@@@##''''';;,,,:::,:,+@###@#@@#,:;:::::#,'#:++:,'#,+'#+''+#'+:';###:,:;::::'''''''''',:::,::;::,`.'+@@@@@@##@#@@#'+'+++@@@@@##@@#@@@@@
#@+#+#+#+###''''''';''''''''+#@#@#+#+#'''''''''':::;::+###@#+@##,::::::,#,+#,'+:,##,+'+:;;##';,';###:,::;:::;''''''''':,::,,:.`'+#####@@@@@##@#@##'++'+'@@@@@@@@@##@@@@
@#@#@###@@@@'''''''''''''''''@@@#@@#@#'''''''''''':,::+@#@@@@#@#,,:,::,,':##,+#:''#,:++;++#++;,++###:::;::::''''''''''',:,:'##@@###@@@@@@@@##@@@@+'++'''#@@@@@@@@##@@@@
##@#@#####@@''''''''''''''''@#@@#@####'''''''''''':::;###@@@@###''''''''''''++''#+@';:;####+'+'''';;:.,,.,,.''''''''''':,::#@@####@@@@@@@##@@@@@@'''''''@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@
#@@@@####@@##''''''''''''''''@@@@@#@##'''''''''''':,:'#@@#@@@###'''''''''''''''+#@@+,:'#@##+@#@#@#@#@#@@#''''';''''''''.:,:+@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@#@#@#+'+''''##@#@###@##++@@
@@@#@#@@@@#@#''''''''''''''''@@@@#####''''''''''';:::''@#@@@#@#@'''''''''''''''###@'::;+#@###@#@#@@@@@@@@'''''''''''''',,,:#@@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@'''+'+'#@@@#@#@#@###@@
##@@@@####@##'''''''''''''''+##@@####@'''''''''''::,:;'@##@@#@##'''''''''''''''@#@@':;'+##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#'''''''''''''';:,:+#@#@#@@@@@@#@##@@@@@'''+''''@#@#@#@@@##+@@@
###@@#@@@@#@#+''''''''''''''##@#@+####''''''''''':,:;''####@####'''''''''''''''###@':::+##+##@#@@@@@#@@###'''''''''''''',::+@#@+@#@@@@#@#@###@@#+'''+'+'@@#@#@#@###+@@@
##@#@##@@#@#@#''''''''''''''#@#@###@@#''''''''''',:,;''##@@@###@'''''''''''''''@#@@+:::'##@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#@'''''''''''''':,:;#@#@#@@@@#@#@@##@@#@'+'''+'+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@@
##+#+###+#+###''''''''''''''@####+##@#''''''''''':,:;''+###+##@#'''';'''''''';##@@@;;:,+'@+@#@@########+@+#''''''''''''',:::##@+@@@@@@#@#@#@@#@+''+'+'''@@#@#@#@#@@#@@@
@#@+@##+#+@#@+''''''''''''''+@+@#@#@#+'''''''''';:::'''###+#+###''''';'''''';'#@#@@':,:'##@@@######@+@#@+@+'''''''''''''::::+##@#@@#@#@+##@@@#+#'''+++'+@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@
'#+#+';#'#+##@''''''';''';''@+#+#+@#@''''''''''',:,:''';#+@+@#@#'';';';''''''''#@@#,:,,#+#+@@@@@##@#@#@+@+##+''''''';'''::::'+@+@@#@#@#@#@#@@+@'''''++++#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@
@+@'';';#+@##@+''';';';';';@+@###@@##''''''''''':::;;';'+#+####++;'''''''';'''#@##@,:.:;####+#+#+@+#+###+#+@#'''''';''''':::'#+##@@#@#@#@@@@+@#''''++'+'@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@
+#'''';''######'';';''''';'+@#@#@##@+''''''''''':::'''''#+@#@##@+'''''''''''''@@@@#;,,,##@#@@@@#@+@+@###@#@@@'''''''''''';:,;+@+@@#@###@@@@#@#+'+'++'+'++@@@@@@#@+##@@@
@#'''''''+@@#@#''''''''';'+@#@#@###+'''''''''''':::';';''####'#'@''''''''';'''###+@,,,:+####+#+#+##@+@####@###'''''''''+'::,;@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@+@'+'++'+'''+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@
#@'''''''####+#'''';';';''@#@#@#@#''''''''''';';,,:;''''''@@#@#@#'''''''''''''#@@@#:.,,##@@+@#@#@+@#@@@#@@#@##''''''''''',:,;'@#@@+@#@##@#@+@'''''++'+'+'@@@@#@#@+@@@@@
@@'''''''@#@+@'';';'''''''@@@#@#''';',,:;;'';'';:,,''''''''+#+#+@+''';;;;;;':;'+#'+':.;+####+#+#+@####+######+#'''''''''':,,:'#@@#@@@@@@#@+#''''+'''''+'+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@
#@'''''''@@#@+''''';'''''#+###''''''':;;:;,:#,,,:,:;''''''''+#+@#@''',:,,,,,'::,#,#+.+:':';,'.+;:.:,;,;##@#@+@+@''''''''',:,;;'+#++#++'####'+''''''''+'+'@@#@#@@@#@@#@@
@@'''''''#+##''''''''''''@#@''''''''',,;+:;,+:,:,,:'''''''''';@+@@#'',,,,,::#:,,,.#+:;;':';,:'##,:::::'+#+@'@+@#@'''''''',,::::::,:;;::+''''''''''+'+'+'+@###@@@####@+@
#@#'''''''++''''''''''''###'''''''''',,':;:;,,:,:,:''''''''';';'###+',,,,,:,+:;:::##:;,':''.;;##;,;::,+#+@+#+#+@@@''''''':::::::::,::::;''+''+'''+#''+'++#@#@#@@@@@@#@@
@##''''''''''';''';''''##@@'''''''''''''''''':::,,;'''''''''''''+@##+;:';';;;';';::,:,'':+,;:',::;:;:,;##+@+##@##@#'''''';:::::::,::::.;;''''''''##+''''''###@@@@@@##@@
#@##''''''''''''''''''####+'''''''''''''''''''',,,;'''''''''''''+@##@+''''''''''''':,::'###+##@#@######@+@+@#@#@@@#@#'''+;:::,:,,,:::::;'''+'++@#@#@+++++'@#@@@@@@@##@@
@#@##''''''''';''''''@@@#@+''''''''++'@@#@##'+':,::'''''''';';''#@+@+#;'''''''''''':;:.+#@#@#+#####+#+#'#+@#@#@@######'''',::;'''''';';'''''+'##@#@#++'+''#@@@@#@##+@@@
#@#@@#+'''';';';';'+###@@#+';';';#+@#@@#@#@+@+@.:.+++''';';';''+@+#'@+#+#+;';';'''':,:,+@#@##@#@##+@+@#@+@#@@####+@+#+@##',::;;';'';';';';'++@+#+#+@''''';+#@@#@##+#@@@
@####++++';';';''++++#@####;';';+++++++#+#+#'#+,,;'++'+++'';++++'@+###+++++'+'+++++:,,:@#####+@+@+@+#+@+@###@##@+#+#+#'##+,:::;;';'';';++####+#+@#@#+''';''@@@@@@###@@@
####+'+'+'+'+'+++'#++++#@@++;;;++++++++'+++'++#.,,++++++'+++'#++#'@'@+++++'+'+'#++#::,:+@#@@@@+@#@+@+@#@+@@#@@@+@+@+#+##++:,,''#+#++#+++#+#+'+'##@@@#'';';'+@@#@+#+#@#@
@@#+++++++'+++++'+'+++++###++'#'+'++#++++#+#'##,.:;+++++#'+'#++++#+#+++++++++++++++:,,,#@##@@#@#@#@#@+@#@#@##@#@#@+#+####+:,:'#+#+##+#+#+##+#+#+#@@##''''''+@@@#@#@@@@@
#@#++'+'+##'#'+'+'+++++++##+'++#++'#+++'+'++#+#,:,;'++++'#'++++;#+#+++++'+;++#+++'#.:.,+###@+#+@+#+@+@+###@#@#@+@+#+#+++++:,,''#+##+#++###+#'#+######+''''''+@@+'';#@#@
##+++#+++@+@+#'#'+'#++#++##+#'#+#+++#+++'+'++##,,::++++'#'+'##+#'@'#++#'++#+####+@#:,::###@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@+#+++#++#+:.:'#####@+@@@@##+#+#+######;''+'++++'''''@@@
#++++'#'++#+@+#'+'#++++++++#'#+#+#+#+++'+++'#+#++;;++++#'#+#+@#+@++'##++++'#+#+#@#@.:.,##@#@#@+@#@+@#@@#@#@#@#++#+#+#+##'+:,.++@@@@#@#@@@@##+#+####+#+#'''+'++++'+'++@@
+#+++#'+'#+#+#+#'+'#+#++++#+#+@##+#+#+++'#'++#+#+#++++++#+#+@###+#'+#'+'+'++####+@#:.,:@##@#@+@#@+@#@#@#@@#@#@##+###+##+#++;'+@@@@#@#@@@@@@#######+#+#+'''''';';''''+#+
@+#+#'+'#+@+###+#+#+#++++++#+###+###+++++'+'++#+++++'+'+'+;#+##;#;+'++'+'+:++#+@#+@`:,:+'#'#'''@+#+##@####@+@++'++#+#+#+'#'#+##@@##+@#@#@@#@+######+#+#+'+++'+'+'+'+##@
+#'+'+'+'#+@+@##++'#+++'++#+###+##@##++#'#+#+#+#+#+#+##++#@+@###+#+##+#'#+#+##@@#@+:,::##+@+@'@#@#@#######+#'#'#+####++'++#+##@@##+@#@@@@+##@@####'++++##'';''+'''+'##+
@+#+#'#+#+@#@##+#+#++#+#+#+##@#####+#'+'#+#+#++#++++'+++'#+##@#+#+#++#'#+#+####@@#@`:.:++#+@+@#@#@##@##+##@+@'#+####+#+#'#+##@@@@+@#@@@@@@+@#@###+#+#+###@'+'+'+''+#@#@
+###+#+##@#@#@#+#+#+#+++#+#+@###@@##+#'#+#+####+#+#+#'+'@#####+#+#++#+#+#+##+#+@+@#:,,:'#+@##+@@##@#######+#+#'####+#+#'#+#+#@#@+@+@##@###@#@@@#+#+#+###@##'''+'+'+#+@@
############+#'+'+++'++++#+########+#'#'#+##+#+#+#+#'#+######+#.####+#+###+##'#+@+@.;,:#'###+@##@###@+##@+#+#'++##+#'#'#'#+####+@+####+#+###@###+++++####@+###'++##+#@@
#@#@#@@#@#@#@##+#+#+#+#########@#@#@##+######+#+#+#+#+###@+#'@'##+#+#+#+++##'++@+@#;:::'#+@#@####@#@#@#@#@##+#+####+#+#+#####@#@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@+######+@#@#@@@@#####@@
@##@@#+@+#@@'#'#++'++##++#++#+#+#+#;#+#+#+##+#'#+#+#+#+@#'#+#+#+##+#'###+##+#'#'@@@:;,:###@####'#+#+@#@+#+######+#+#+#+#+###@#@#@#@@#@#@@@@#@#@##########@@@@#######@@#
#@##@#@+#+###'#+++#+#+#########@+@+@#######+#+#+#+####+###+@+@+@#+#+####+###+#+##@@,,,:+@@#@#@#@#@#@@@#@@@#+#+#+#+######+#+@+@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@@@########@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@
###@##+#+###+#+#+#+#+##+###+##@#@#@#@#######+#+#+####+##@+@+##@@+#+#+####+#'#+#+@@+,,,,#@##+@+@+@###@@@#@#######+########+####@@@@@@+@#@@@@#@#@@######+#@@@@@###@@@#@@@
##@#@+@+#+#+#+#+#+#+##+#+#++'#+#+@+##@###+#'#+##+#++'#'#+#+####++'#+##'#:+'#+####'@.,.:++#'#+#+@####@######+#+#'#+########+@#@@##+##@#@@#@#@#@@@@####+##@#@######@#@#@@
#@####+#+#+#+++#+#+#++#+#+#'#+@+##@#####+#'#+##+#+#'#+#+@+@#@@##'#+##+#+#+#+####@@#,.::##+##@##@#@@####@##+#+#+######+#+#+##@@@####@#@@@##@@@@@@@#######@@@@##@@@##@#@@
#+###+#+#+#+#+###+#+##+#+#'#'@+####@#####'#+####+#'#+#+#+@#@@#@+#+####+#+#+#####@#@,,,;####@@@#@@@@#@#@#;##+#+######+#+####@@#@###@#@@#@###@@@@@#+######@#@####@###@#@@
######+#+#+#####+#+####+#+#+##@#@#@@#@##+#+####+#+####@#@@@@#@#######+###########@@,,:'###@#@@@@#@@@@##@###################@@#@#@@@@@@#####@@@@@@#########@##@@@@###@@@
@#@#@###################+####@#@@@#@###+#+#+####+#+##################+############@.:,'#+###@@@@##@@######################@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@########@#@#@@@@#####@@
@#@#@#@#@#@#############++###@@@@@@@#@############+###@@@@@@@@########+##########@@.,:'####@@@@@@@@@@#@###################@@@@@#@@@@@@###@@@@#@#@#####+#+@@@@#@######@@
#######@#@###########+#'#+#####@#@#@#@##+######+#####@@@@@##@####################@@,,:;###@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#############+####@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@#@#@#@######@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@
@#@#@###@@@##################@@@#@@@@@################@@@@@#@####################@@:::'####@@@@#@#@#@#@#########+#+######+@+@+@#@@+@+#+@@#@#@#@#@@##+#+#'@@#@###@###@@#
##@######@############++#########@@###++##############@@@@@@#@@@#####+######+#+##@@;,;;#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@###########+#########@###@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@@@##@####@@@@@#@#@@@##@
##@####@@@##################@@@###@@##################@@##@#@@@@@###+######+#####@@@##+@#@@#@#@+@#@#@#@#####@##@#####@@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@

---
How to cite this:

The Magician at AbeBooks


4 comments :

  1. Hey I thought of an idea. I didn't know where to post this comment. I wonder what it would be like to read every Maugham book in order from first to last (from "Liza of Lambeth" to "Looking Back"). Plays would be read either in order of production date or by publication date. Now with the availability of "The Bishop's Apron" in a print-on-demand edition, and digital versions, one can possibly accomplish this task.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Interestingly I have that aim for quite some time! Never have the time to carry it out though. It will definitely be quite an experience. I wish I could have a retreat to some seaside spot and do nothing but that.

      Delete
  2. How would you handle the plays? By first performance date, or by publication?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. What I would like to look at in this case is the development of Maugham as a writer, so I would follow the chronology of his composition.

      Delete