Tuesday, 1 September 2015

"Somerset Maugham and Posterity" – Glenway Wescott

Images of Truth - Glenway Wescott on Maugham
Images of Truth - Glenway Wescott

Wescott, Glenway. Images of Truth. Remembrances and Criticism. New York: Harper and Row, 1962.


I am going to talk about Wescott's book, or more accurately, a chapter from his book, with delight and indulgence: "Somerset Maugham and Posterity."

Glenway Wescott (1901–1987) was an American author, one of the expatriates in the famous '20s and someone who knew Maugham personally since they met in 1928; their friendship continued for years to come.

This very interesting chapter was first published in Harper's Magazine in 1947, later as introduction to The Maugham Reader (1950), which was suggested by Maugham himself, and then incorporated in Wescott's own collection of essays in 1962.

The 1962 version is much extended with the addition of an analysis of the short story "The Treasure." This will be the edition discussed in this post.

Somerset Maugham and Posterity


In 1947 Maugham was seventy-three years old, about time to think about his literary heritage. Indeed, Maugham had already thought about it, quite thoroughly in The Summing Up (1938).

However, verdicts from others didn't seem too optimistic, and I am glad to say that Wescott was an exception. And indeed, he did more than that. He pointed out why and did an apologia for our author.

It is an interesting epigraph that Wescott chooses to put, nothing less than from Virginia Woolf: "A rule of criticism: 'Do not dictate to your author; try to become him'" (59).

Wescott points out a very important guide for reading Maugham:
Maugham, characteristically, hints more than he expounds; which is just as well, if your interest is personal and serious. You can make what you wish of his helpfulness, to suit your case. (60)

There are a lot of themes and food for thought in a Maugham story, not to mention a novel, which I attempted to show in "The Force of Circumstance."

Wescott doesn't just say that, but he has evidence to back himself up.

He writes about his reading of a much ignored novel, and I wonder if it is still read, Christmas Holiday. It is a most intriguing mature novel, in which one can find Maugham's style (both humorous and serious) and the themes that are close to his heart.

Wescott reads it as a social commentary, or better (as we know how Maugham frowns upon that term), just a commentary on human nature and situation that keeps recurring when the historical setting for it is ripe. An acute philosophical and historical observation and analysis.

Wescott refuses to believe that behind the simplicity of style there is only superficiality, as some lazy readers would believe:
some readers depend a great deal on verbal associations and style in general, as indications of seriousness of thought: massive abstruse specialized words, complicatedness and elaboration in other ways as well, and a mysterious solemnity. (68–9)
He is convinced that Maugham, when creating his immemorial stories, gave more thoughts to them than he cared to brag about to the public. Wescott expounded his theory on Christmas Holiday–which "explains more of the human basis of fascism and nazism and communism than anyone else has done" (71 & ff.)–to Maugham himself. Although as Wescott points out, Maugham was usually reluctant to hear anything about his own works, this time he listened, and pronounced:
"Certainly I had those things in the back of my mind while I was writing it. But if I had insisted on them I should have spoiled my story. It is not the business of a novelist to tell his readers what they are to think of his characters and his plot. If you want your work of fiction to be read, and you have some point that you wish to make, you must bring it in discreetly. Your reader may not take your meaning, or it may not interest him. You must let him read for his pleasure." (74–5)

As for the short story "The Treasure," Wescott compares its perfection to "one of those clocks which need no winding up" (77).

However, Wescott isn't too enthusiastic about Of Human Bondage, which lacks the later Maugham's touch of magic. He sees the overt class consciousness as its weakness. This is indeed an interesting point. Last night I picked up Forster's A Room with a View after feeling so chagrined by the narrative style of an insignificant novel. At this point of time, I can hardly say if I had read the classic before; if I had, it was out of obligation and I had forgotten about it completely.

From the very opening page what do we have? Class consciousness. Without it, the novel would have made no sense at all, and it went on for chapters, perhaps to the end of the book.

Admittedly, it was written almost ten years before Of Human Bondage, but the world didn't change as fast then. And if we ask ourselves today, is class consciousness gone? Or is it simply not politically correct to behave as if it isn't?

Maugham, a few years before Wescott's article, pondered to himself that one of the delusions of America is that "there is no class-consciousness in the country" (A Writer's Notebook. London: Heinemann, 1949, p. 311).

All this is not just a stubborn defence against any sort of criticism towards my favourite author, but simply using the reading of his works, and others' criticism of him to examine our own prejudice, to take the courage to look inward, as individuals, as society, which is what makes his works significant.

How to Read Maugham and Maugham's Popular Unpopularity


Wescott further advises:
If you are looking for deep thoughtfulness in a story or a novel by Maugham, you cannot expect to have it underlined for you as such. You must use your head, in order not to mistake simplicity for insignificance; and you must learn to recognize his idea in that envelope of reality in which ideas do actually generate, in incident and in dialogue and in little sequences of cause and effect. Also you will need to read somewhat slowly, pondering as you go along, and to bear it all in mind for some time afterward, weighing it against your own experience and ideas and feelings. Otherwise Maugham is not the author for you, and may never be. (69)

This is useful advice for reading any good book, or any book that has some meanings for you.

More than affirming Maugham's worth, Wescott also investigates the reasons behind the animosity against Maugham's claim to posterity.

Wescott ventures that the resentment can be due to the fact that Maugham throughout the years kept producing steadily, working indefatigably with admirable professionalism, while others were still waiting for, or blabbering on about, their inspiration, "all blow and no go," and their expectation to mould contemporary opinions (61).

He attributes Edmund Wilson's vituperative criticism as out of miscomprehension of Maugham's works and saturation by Maugham's steady pace of unending creativity (62).

Now, Maugham was also to blame, according to Wescott, for being too modest himself. His humble opinions of himself were only too gleefully repeated by his detractors (62–3).

Lastly, there are the "real believers in unpopularity" (63). Needless to say, Maugham's commercial success was only too vulgar.

Before I end this post, I would like to mention Wescott's irrefutable point. Still about the "problematic" simplicity in communication, in language, in style. The apparent effortlessness.

Why should we take Maugham seriously?
I gather that in his formative years he studied everything they (Maugham's contemporaries) were doing; then considered, in his reading of all the still-valid fiction of the past, every sort of parallel; carried the lesson forward in speculation upon the future; and regularly applied it to his day's work, most earnestly desiring not to have written vain. (66)

he has written a great amount, so as to constitute a distinct Maugham-world into which his readers can enter, of which they can learn the idiom and the implications, each volume helping them to understand the next, building up their response to the next. (67)

He has a reading and speaking knowledge of five languages, and has read everything, including all the classics of religion and metaphysics, studiously. He is the most serious of men, seeking the general truth of all things, holding himself responsible for his every belief of disbelief, never fooling himself or others, thinking hard. It would be odd indeed if his production of books, even unpretentious stories, were as light weight as the common estimation has it. (68)

Listen to this, and try to imagine yourself working as he does. Week in and week out, year after year, in whatever circumstances–though surrounded by frivolity, though assailed by bothers and anxieties, and touched upon occasion as all men are by exceeding affection or pity or self-pity or anger–regularly every morning he goes to his desk and labors at his writing. (80)

Indeed in his middle life he made some voyage every year or so, notably to the Orient and around the South Seas, in what must have seemed a carefree manner. But think of the cargo of fiction he brought back upon each return voyage! (81)

Furthermore, in Maugham's case, the time he spends at his desk is only a part of the labor. All his stories and novels have been worked out in his mind before he ever takes his neat pen in hand. [...] All this goes on in his head; not in Darwin's three hours but in the other twenty-one, when he rouses too early in the morning, when he sits by the fire, when he is taking short salubrious walks. (81–2)

Do you simply dismiss someone with this impressive CV because he can talk to and about a beachcomber as well as to and about a philosopher in a language that both can understand? Or give him the benefit of the doubt and think hard about it?

Wescott also discusses Katherine Anne Porter, Colette, Thornton Wilder, Thomas Mann, Isak Dinesen, and Goudeket in Images of Truth; it can be borrowed from the Open Library. If you fancy the earlier version, you can read the introduction to The Maugham Reader or download from Harper's archive.

                                                         `                                          
                                                        `                                           
                                                      `                                             
                                                `,      .,:,,,  :.                                  
                                               `      ,.   :`  +#'                                  
                                            ``  :@#      `:;   +'+#:                                
                                         .,,` `##:  ,: `,,:   :,:.  ;:.                             
                                      ,:,;`'####:,''@' ``;   ,:`    `                               
                                  .;+#:`` :+++  .,';;`  ;:  `.```      `,                           
                                 :#@@: ```#;,  ` ', ,`  +  ``    `.    .:`                          
                            `   .+#@'    .#    `.``        ;: `     :.,:`                           
                           `   .:;;'     .    . :          `: `      `'.   ;,                       
                          ``  `. `#      `   ,:,;   , ,   ,.``         .  .,:+                      
                          .` `,,  #   . .   `. .   .  :   ,:        ``   ,  ,:'                     
                          ,. ` ' .`   ```   ;: : `        '                                         
                               . ,     .    ``     `    . ,             `    :`                     
                         `   `   :`    `    ``     .    ,.``  `  `      `   ''  ++                  
                       `     `    ,                . `  :,    `            :.``  :#                 
                             `    .``     ` ` `   `, ,  :.  `             .;.  `'@@+                
                     `    `   `           ` :     `.    :   `             ,;`  @@. +                
                              .             ,    ``  . `'   `.            ,.  #@    ,               
                     ``,`                   .    ,`  , `:   `.   `           ;#  `##+;              
                        `,  `,                   `   ' ,,   ;               ''` .`   ,`             
                            .:;           `          # ':   .   `    . `   +..       `              
                           `.+,            ``        ;`+.  `        .``   .;`      ..               
                          `:.      `. `              `:;,  `  `    ,.      .    :;.                 
                         ` `;    .``                 .  : .  `     .       ,  ,::     `             
                       `;::;`   ,`                     `.                    ::`   .::,             
                        ``..    `     `,,`             .                     `    `,` :             
                       ;;;',        ``  ` `                                   .        .            
                      ::.+;.        `                                         ` `                   
                         #                                                    ';      `             
                      `.'+                                      `             ;`,::` `.`            
                     .,,,#      .                               `                  ,: ``            
                     ,:``#`                          ````   ``.,.`  .',        ::.  ,  :            
                      ``,+            ``                              `;,      `      ,,`           
                      ` .`     ..,```,'.                                `.     .      .             
                     ..`.     `               .`             `,,::+',          :+`    ;`            
                       :;   ``                  `.`..`.`            .:;'.      '.                   
                       '   ``                       `                   `,     .+.                  
                    `..             .;:;,                     ```.,;:..   `      ;:.  `..,`         
                   `,,`                 ,,:`           ` ``.````.`  ,` ;,  `     `   ,:             
                    ``                     .,,`                         ',       ;`  :.             
                   .,.        `  `,;;::`     .``                 `;+##;  ;.      :   ..             
                   ,,.        `     ..:,;:     ```          `..:::    `+  ,     `.    `             
              ;#.                        ,.       `.```..` `            ;  `    ``    `.            
              `@'               .,,.         `                  .::,:,`  :            .             
               #@             `                                        .  `                         
            `   '                `:+.                        `                  ,  `` ``.       `   
           `.    :  `          `:,+##:                               ``         `   `  ,:`          
            .#   ,             ,`  +#@### `,                        `  ``        ::,.`              
             @`  ``          `:     ,'##@#@#'                    `+#'              ,`               
             #`   .          ;:    `:;+###'@#.        `    ` ..;+####'    .        .     .`         
           ` .    `     `   +;`  `    .#'`,@+,       `.   `..##;+;`,'#@;`  ,`     `  .   `          
          ``   ;           .+:          +;.##;+   `   `   `::,``,   .,###'`,    `                   
              `@:          :+;`,   .;`   , ;.`#+`              `: `;'##,;+;:           ,            
           `  ,@@`          #'#  +@  '@@  `#'.;#`        .,  ;;          ,'+          ::            
              ,#@`         `'## : @@@@@##  ;#;.':       `:` :'            ,'         .+             
              ,+           `;:.    @@@,  #. .'``'       `, .' .#++'@+               :'              
            ` :           `';  ,          @    `+        ` :;+.'#@@@@'    #:        @'              
              .                 ,              ,.       `,` +   @@@@  +'; ,`       +#.  `           
           .  `           `.     `,',   .+     ,                 #@,    '         ,#.   `           
                          ``            ++ .  `;                          `       #'                
            `             .` ..        ,: ;   :,            ''      ,,    ;:      +:                
          ` ,      `          .`        .;.   ;       `   :` '+`           .       `                
            ` `                ;        +,   :.       ,    +  :       .   `                         
                              .:`     .+,    :`       :`   +:    .;;',:   ``                        
                :             .`     ,'`     ``       ,,    +        .;    .          .             
            `  `'              `  `.`.        `       ,     ..       ;,               .             
            `  ,+          `.     ..                 .`  :   ;.      ,             .                
               +'          ``    .,                  `        #+,   `   `          ,                
             . #           .:+;  ..       ,`,`            `    ...              ,.                  
            `:   `;       `:+;:  `       ;';+,    `       `         `   .       #.                  
             .   +@;      .::`          '+``+,    .    ,,`        `::,  ,`      #                   
          ``   :#@@'     ..,,          :++  ;`    `    :+'`        `,'. `:      ',                  
                `   .    ,``    ,`    ;'+         ``     `;`             ``   ``                    
       `            ,    `     '.    +, ,                 ':           `      ,`    `               
      ``           ,+    .    ;;    ,+   '.               `;                  :,                    
         `         :+    `   `:.    '    ;+##             `+'             `   ;.   `                
                   ';    `   +,    :.    `,@@@        `@@: `#`    .,          ,`                    
                  `;`       ,:     :    `  ;#@  ',:: +@@.   #;`    `    `     `                     
          .        ;`       :      `     ` :'@#.@@@@@@+.    ,+`         `     `                     
           ` `   ``:`       `    .`       ` `,#@@@@;`        +'   ``    `    `                      
             `     :`           ..        ` ...##:            '   `,         .                      
                  .;`    ` ``  .'           ..:,              ;:   .         `                      
                   ,     , .   .;                      `      `;             `                      
                   ;`   `.     :  ,                            ;            `                       
            `     `''   ``    `:        :` ,+`                 ..                                   
                   @@   `     ;, ',``;+@@@@@@@#    .            ,           @                       
           `      ;@@   `     :  '+#+, ++  .;#@: +@@@@#         .  `       :@+                      
                 '+##:  ``  `.                 .;#@@@+@@@.         ``      @#:,`                    
                .' ;'#   ,   `                          ,+#;`              #;`,'`                   
  `      .,;:``',#  '#   `      .   ,                      +#+,`   `      ''``,,:                   
  ` `` ` ```  `,    :@   `         `,                              ``    ,#`  ``                    
 ``. ` .,     `   .`;##      `     ,                                `    ;#,                        
. ``         `.:` . ,##      ,,    .       ```   `                        #;                        
            :  ``  `;+@`  `  .:    .        ```  `:,..:,   ``  `          :..          ``           
`      `  ``.`  .   ,`#       .`  `.     `   ``   `````    ..  .       '  .,`                       
       .  `  .  `  `:''    ,   `   `                        `  `      ;:  .,`                       
        `.         `.`'    ,.      ``                                ::   `,                `       
         ,           .@  `` ;   .  `.                               :'                              
         `          .++   `  '  ;    .`                            ,+.      `                 `     
       `            `,;    ` `;,`    ..                     `      +;       .                   ``  
       `    `       `.;       :;     `,                   .:      +;`     ` `                       
                ``  `;;      ` ,      ,.                  `     ,+;'      `                         
               `.  ```;         .  `  ..:                    .'#+,''      . `                       
          ```   .`   `.         `,      '`     `             '#';:'`      ` `                       
      `.  .` ``  `       `       `..  ```,                 ,',,`.,:         `    ,    .   ..        
    `:`           `  ` . .        `.  , ';,;            .;.';    `          `   @@   ; , #,,#       
   `:',           :,, ` ``           ,;   '###:..  +:  :#+, , .`,`         `     @          #       
   ,,,`            `             `    ,:  , +@#@#@@@@@@@@     .`,          .     @        `@        
   :`              ,,         `        ''+       @@@@@@##`    ,:         ` .     @       ;@         
  ,`                ,`. ``                 .  `` . :;,      `,;          .      @@@      @@@@       
 ,,  `              '.  :, `  .`       ,,    `@;.@@@@@#  .  `,.                                     
 .                  ``` ``                  @; @@@@@  `@    ,,                                      
,              `     ,. `          .    .  '  @@@@#    #   .,.                                      
`              `.`   `..   .           `  #  @@@@`     @@                                           
'#+#'#+#+#'#+########'#####'#+#+@#####+#'#'#+######@##@+@+@+@#@###+@+@+@#@#@@#@+@+@#@#@#@#@@#####@+@#@+##@#@#@@#@@#+@#@@@@##'#+@#@@+@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@
@#@+@#@#@'@#@@#@#@@#'###+#+###+#######@+#+#'##@#@###@#,@+@#######+#+@+@@@#@##@#@#@@@@@#@@#@#@#@#@#@+@#@#@#@@@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@#@#@#+@#@#@@@##@###@#@@##@@#@#@#@##@#@@@#@
'@+#'#+#+##@#@###+#;#+@##+#+@###@@@@+@+#+@+@#@#@#@@@@#@;@#@#@@#@#@+##@@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@#@+@+@##+@#@#@#@@@@###@+@#@@@@#@+@+@#@@@@+##@###@@#@#@#@@@@#@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@
#+##@+@+@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@@@@@
##+#;@+@+#'@#@#@#@@###@@@@@+@#@+@@@@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@#@#@@+@#@#@#@@+@+@+@@@@+@+@#+;++@+@#@#@#@#@@@#@@+@#@+@#@@@@#@+@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@###@+##@@#@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@#@#@@
#+#+@+#+@'@+@+@@@#@@@@####+@##+#@###@#@+@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@#@##@#@#@+@#@@#@#@+@#@#@@#@##.,,#+@+@+@+@#@#@#@@#@#@+@+##@@@@#@+@#@#@@###@#@@#@#@#@#@#@@+@#@@@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@
'@+#'@+#+#+##@#+@#@'#+##@##+@+#+##+#'###'#+##@###+#+#:@+@#@#@#+#'#+@#@#+@##+@#@@#@#@+;,,'#+@#@;@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+##@#@@+@+@###@@###@#@@###@+##@#@@###@#@@#@@#@##@#@#@@@@@@
@+#+#'@+#+#+@###@@###@#@###@##+@###+@#@+#+@+@##@#@##+@+@#@@@@##+@#@#@@###@+@#@@#@#@#,,,,++@+@#@+##@@@#@@#@#@+@+@@###@+@#@#@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@#@#@@#@#@@@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@
+#+#'@+@+@+@#@@+@#@##+@###@#@#@#@@@#+@#@#@#@##@+@+##@'@#@#@#@@+#+@#@#@##@#@#@@@@+@#@',::;#+@#@#@#@#@#@@#@+@#@#@#@#@@+@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@##@@@#@@@@@@
#+#+#####+####'#+#+#+#+#+#+@###@###'##@###@#@@#@#@#@+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@:,:,'#@#@#@#@@@@@##@+@+@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@+@#@#@@#@##+@@@@@@+@#@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@
####+##+#####'#'@+#'#;#'#+######+#+#+##########+@'@+#'@@@###+#+@#@###+@+@#@@@@#@+@#@,:,:'@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@##@@#@@@@@@@@
@###@#+#'#@###;###+@+@+@+@+@#####+@+@@#@###@+@#@+@+@#@@@@@@+#+##@@##+@+@##,,:##+#+@#:,:,+#@@#@@@@';:##+##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@+@###@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@
#@@@##@#@@@#@+@#@#@+@#@#@#@##@#@#@+@##@#@+##@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@.,.:.'#+@@@,:,;'@@@@#@':;:;;#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@+@#@#@#@#+@#@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@@@
+#+###+#'@#@+#+@#@#@+@###@###'#'#'@#@#+#+###+#'@#@#@##@@@##+##@#+#+@#@+@@',:,,..;#@@:,;:##@@#;;,::;.'#+@#@#@@#@###@+@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@#@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
#+#+#'#+##@.#+@#+###########+#+#+#+##+#+#+#'#+#+###@##+#+@'##@###+@+@+####;,,,,,.;'#,;,;;#@':,::::`:#+@#@##@####+@+#@@@##+@#@@@##@###@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@@@@@
'#+@+@'#'###+##@###@#@@###@#@+@#@#@#@@+@+##@#@+@@@##@+@+@+@##@+#+@#@#@@####';,,,,,;';:::+#:::;,,`,'#+####+#'#+#+@+#+##+#+@#@#@#+#+@#@@@@#@+@#@@@##@###@#@@@@#@##@@@@@@@
@+@##'@+@##+@+@###@#@@#@#@##+@#@#@@@@#@###@#@#@@@##@+@#@+@#@##@+#+@#@#@@@@+@+#,:,::+:::,#,:,;..:#+@#@@@@#@+@+@+#+@##@##+@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@@@@###@#@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@
+#+#+#'#+#'#+###+'#+#+###'+'++######+#+#+##@+####+#+@+@+@#@##@+@+@#@@####+@#@#@':,:';,,:+;,:.;+@####@##+#+#+@###@#####+@@@@#@#@#@#@@@@###@#@@@@@##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@
@#@#@+@#@+@#@##@'##@##'#+#+######@#+#;@+########+#'#'#+@+@###'#+##@#####+@#@##@##::':,:,',:,+@##@@@@+@+#+@+@#@#@@##@#+##@@#@##'@#@#@@#@+#+@#@@##+#+####@@##@##@#@@@@@@@
+##@+#+@#@+@#####+@#@+@+#+#+##@@###@+@#@#@##@+##@+@+#+@#@##@+##@@#@##+@###@@##@@##+#,,::',;###@#@###@##+@###@#@@@@@@+##@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@
##@#@+@#@#@#@@#@+##@##+#+##@#@##@###@+@#@####@#@+@#@+@#@#@@+@+@#@@#@+@#@+@#@@@@#@#+',,::#,;#@##@@@@@#@+@+@#@@@@@@#####@#@@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@#@@@##@#@#@#@#@#@@##@@#@@@@@@@
##+#+#####+@#+#+#+#+#+#'#'#+##+#'#'#;+#####+#'#:#+@+###@@@##+@#@#+###+@#@@@##@#@+:.'.;,;;;,;##@#@###@#@#@@@@@@@@#####@@#@#@###@#@@#@#@##@@@@#####@@@@@###@###@@@@@@#@@@
@#@#@+#########@+#'#'#;#+####@#+@+#+@+@@@@#@#@#@+@+@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@#:,:,::;:#,;:;#+####@#@#@#@#@@@@@@+###@@@#@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@@@@###@#@@@@@##@##+@@@@@@@@@@@
#@#@#@######@+#+@+@#@+######@###+#'#+#+'''''';';'''''+++#@#@#@@@#+@#@#@#@@@@#@#,,,,:.::'#::;::'#@+@##+##@@#@#@#@#@###@@#@;@#@+'''''';''''''+@#@###@@@###'''''@@@@@@#@@@
+###+#+#+#+#'#+#####+######+#+#'#;'''';';';''';'''''''''''';+##########@#@##@#.,,.,;::::+';:;,.++#+@+##@@@#@@###@#@+@#@###'''''''''''''''''''''#@@@#@#@'''+''@@@#@##@@@
@######+@+@+@+@+##@#@#@#@##@#+''''''''''';''';';'''''''''''''':'#+@#@#@@@@#@#,,,,.#@,;:;'##;::::'#####@@@@@@#@#@#@@##@@#'''''''''''''''''''''''''+@#@#''''+++@@@#@#@@@@
#@@#####+##@#@#@#@#@#@#@@###';';';'''';';''''';'''''''''''''':;,;'#@#@@@@#@',,.,,+#@::;;####;:,::'#@#@@@@@#@@@;+##@#@@'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''+@'''''+'+#@@@@@@@@@
#########+#+#+@+@#@#@#@#@#'''';';'''''';';''''';'''''''';''';::,,:''####+@;,,,,,#@##,:::#####:;::;'@@@@####@@,,:###@#''''''''''''''''+++'''''''++''''''''++'+#@#@@@@@@@
##+##@+#+@##+@##########'''''''''''''';'''''''''''''''''''''':,,,,:''@@@@',.,.:#@@#@,,:;###@#@;;:::'@#@#@#@#:,:;:+#'''''''''''''''##@@@@@@+''+''''''''''''+'@#@@@@@@@@@
##+#@+####@'@#@#@##@@@+'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''';:,:,::''#@+,.,.:#@@###,,,;@#@#@##:':;;;@#@#@+,,::,,@'''''''''''''''##@@@@@##@#++'+'''''''''''@@#@@@@@@@@@
##+@####+###@#@@@####'';''''''''''+''''''''''''''''''''''##'''';,:::,'';,,,.;#@@#@#@,,,;#@#@#@@@'':;:+@#@;,,;:.'#+'''''''''''''+#@@@@@@@@@@#@#''''''''''''##@#@@@@@@@@@
#+#############@##'#'''';''''''####+#;'''''''''''''''''@@@@@@+''',,,::;,:..:#@@@@@#@,,.'@@@#@###@:;:::##,,,,,:#@+'''''''''''''+#@@#@@@#@@@##@@+''''''''+''#@#@@@@@@@@@@
#@#@@@#@#@@@@@#@@#+'''''''''''@@####+@'''''''''''''''''#@@@@#@+''':;:::::,:#@#@@#@#@::,;#@@@#####@;:,;::,,:,##@'''''''''''''''##@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@''''''''''+#@@@@@@@#@#@@
@@@##@@@@@##@#####'''''''''''######+##''''''''''''''''@#@@@@@#@'''':::,,,:'@@@@@@#@@:,:;@@@@#####@#:,:;:,:,+#@'''''''''''''''@#@@@@@@@@##@@@@#@#'''''''+'#@@#@@@@#@#@@@
#@#@#@@#####@##+#''''''''''''@##+#+##@''''''''''''''''@#@@@####@''''::,,:'''@@#@#@@@::,.#########@@@.,,,:'@@#+''''''''''''''+@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@###'''''''''#@@@@@@@@#@@@@
##@@+#+##@##+#+#''''''''''''###'###+@#''''''''''''''''@@@#####@@@''::,,,''''+@##@@@#',;,##@#@#@@@@@@@,,,:'#@''''''''''''''''##@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@@#'+'+''''@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
##@@###@#######+''''''''''''@########@''''''''''''''''@@@#@##@@@@':::,,;'''''#@@@@@@.:.:+#@@#@@@@##@@+,:::#+''''''''''''''''#@##@##+##@#@@#@#####''''''''#@@@@#@###@@@@
@#@####@######+''''''''''''##@###@@###''''''''''''''''#@##+##@@@@',,,,''''''''@@@@@#,,::##@#@#@@#@@@#@':,:,''''''''''''''''+@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@+@@@#'+'''''@@#@#@#@#@@@@@
@#@####@#####@'''''''''''''#@###@@@@#@''''''''''''''''@@@##@@@#@@,,,:'''''''''@@@@@@.,,:##@###@###@@@#@;:.,:'''''''''';''''@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@#'''''''@@@@@#@@@@@@@@
######@##@#@#@'''''''''''''@####@#@#@#''''''''''''''''####@@@#@#,.:,;'''''''''@@@#@#:,:,#@@@@@#@#@@@#@#@,:,:;''''''''''''''@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@'+'+'''@@#@#@#@@@@@@@
@##@#@@@@#@##'''''''''''''+@#####@@@@#+'''''''''''''''#@@@#@#@#'.:,:'''''''''''##@@@:,:;##@#@###@+@#@#@##,,,:''''''''''''''#@+@+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@#@#'''''''##@#@###@#@@@@
#@###@####+#''''';';'''''''+@+@#@#@@@@'''''''''''''''+@#@@@#@##,',,';'''''''''''@#@@:,,'+#+@+#+@#@#@#@+@#'::::';';''''''''#@###@###@@#@+@+@@@##@#@'+'''''#####@#@#@@@@@
#@@@#@##@#@#';''''''''''''@#+##@+@#@#@'''''''''''''''#@@@@#@#@+',,;;'''''''''''''@@@:,,;#+@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@#::::;';'''''''';#+#'#+@##@##+#####@#@#@#'''''''++@@#@@@@@#@@@
###+########'':''''''';'''+######;#'##''''''''''':,';@#@#@@#@+##,;'';''''''''''''#@@;,:'+###+@#@#@#@#@#@@'':,:,'''''''''''@@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@@@'''++''#@#@@@@@@#@#@@
#@#@+@#####'''''''''''''';+#@##@##+@+@''''''''''',,,:+@@@@#@+,+#.#''';'''''''''''@@@,;,'#+@+#+@+@#@+@#@#@'';::::;''''''''':;#+@##@#@#@+@@@@#@#@@@@#''+'''@@@@@@#@#@#@@@
#@@+##@##@#''';'''''''''''#@@###@+@+@#'''''';';',,,,,.'##@@+..:`+#;';'''''''';''''@@;,,+'#+@+@+##@+#+@+##'''::,,;;'''''';:.,'##@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@@@@'+'+'+#@@#@#@+@#@#@@
@##@+@#+@+@;''''''''''''''@####@+@#@#@+'';';''''',,,:.;,+#+:.,.:++'''''''''';';'''@#..,;#+@+@+@#@#@#@#@#+''';:,:.''''':::,:,;'@##@+@'##@@##+@+#@#@#''';''+@+######@#@@@
+##+@#+#+#;''';'''''''''''+###@##+@#@@'''';';';''';:,:,;.:@...,###;';'''''''';';''@@,,,''#+###+##@#@+##@'''''::,,:'':,,,,,.,'###@#@+#+@@#@#@#@#@@@#'''''''@@###@#@#@#@@
@+###+#'#+''';'''''''''''''#'#+#'####@''';';';';'''';,',;,,,.:+'@'';'''''''';'''''##::,;#+@##+#@@@@#@@@@'''''',,,:;:::,:,.##@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@+''+'+'+@#@#@@@@@@@@@
+@+###'#+@''''''''''''''''##@+@+@+@#@#+';';';''''''''+';.;,.:,##+#;'''''''';''''''+#:,.;'#+#+##@########''''';;,,,:,::,,:+#@#@@##+#+@#@##@+@#@@@@#+'''+'++@@#@#@@@#@@#@
@+@+#'@+@+';'''''''''''''''####@+##@#@#'';'''''''''''+#@,:,,.##+@+'''''''''''''''''#,.'+#+@###@@+@+#@@#+'''';'':,:,:,,';'+@@####'@#@#@@+#+##@@##+#+''''''+##@@#@###@+@#
+#'#+#+#++;''''''''''''''''####+#+@+@##''';''''''''''#@#+:,`,##@+''''''''''''''''''@.,:+##@@#@@@@#@@@#@'';''''';:,:,;';''@@#@#@+####@@#@#@#@@@@+##@'++++'@#@@@@@@#@#@#@
@#@#@+@+@''''''''''''''''''##@#@+@#@@@+'';'''''''''''@+@,,..'+#+@''''''';''''''''''#,,:'@####@@@+@#@#@#'''''''''::,,;''''@##+#+@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@##+++'@#@#@@@@@@#@+@@
:+;#'#:+'':'''''''';''';''';+'#'@+#+##;';';'''''''''';@'.,..##+#+'''''';';'''''';''@.;.'+#####@#@+@##+''''''''''':,,:';''+#+#+@#@@#@##+@#@@@@##+##@#@#@@+@#@@@@#@####+#
@+#+##@+@''''''''';';';';'''+@#@+@####+;';'''''''''';'#:..`++'#+#''''''';';'''''';'#,.,'##@@+@+##@#@+''''''''''''::,:;'''@+@#@#@#@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@@@@@#@@
##+@'###+'''''''';';''';''';#+@#@#@##@+'''''''''''''''@`...#@#+@+'''''''';';'''';''#,:.++@###+@+@#@#@'''';''''''';:,,;'''#@+@+@#@#+@#@#@#@@+@#@#@@#+@@@##@@#@#@#@#@#@#@
@+@+#'@+@''''''''';';';';';';####@###++;'''''''''';''';:..+@#+#+@''''''''';''''''''#,.:+@@#@#@#@#@#@+'''''''''';'',,,:'''@+@+@#@##@+@###@@#++@++@@@+@+@+++++#@#@#@###@@
##+@'@#@#'''''''';';';';';';'+#+@###+#''''''';''';';'':.,.####'@+'''''';';';'''';';#.:.#'@###+#+@+@#@+''';'''''''':,,:;'''@+@+@#@@###@#@@@@+@+#+##@++##+++@+@#@#@#@##@@
@##+@+@#@''''''''';';';';';';++##@####';'''''''''';'''.:.++##+#+'''''';';'''';';''++:,:'#@+##@+@#@+@+@''''''''';''',,,:'''#@#@@#@+@+@#@@#@+++#@+@#+++#@+@#@+++#@@@@###@
##+@+@###'''''''';';';';';';''####+#+#''''''';''';';',:.,'##+@+@+'''''';';'''';'''##,:,+###+#+#+@#@#@@''''''''''''':,::'''@@@@#@+@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@'+'@#@@@@#@@@#@#@@@
####@#@##+;''''';''''''''''''#####@+##''''''''''''''':,:;####+@#@''''';'''''';';''@#:.,'##+@#@#@@@#@#@+''''''''''''':,:;'+@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@##'''+'@@@@#@@@@@@@@#@
###@#@###+''''''';'''''''''''@#@+#+##@'''''''''''''';:,,###@#@#@@'''''''''''''''''@+,:,+@#@#@#@@@@##@@'''''''''''''',:,,''@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@++'''+@@@@@@@@@@@#@#@
####@#####;';'''''''''''''';++##@+@###'''''''''''''',:,.#+#+@###+';'''''''''''''''#+;,,++@+@@#@#@+@#@##''''''''''''':,,:''##@###@@###@#@#@@#@#@#@@'''''++##@#@@@@#####@
###@#@#@##''''''''''''''''''##+@#@#@##'''::;'''''''':,,;+####@###'''''''''''''''''@+::,+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@'''''''''''''',:,''#@@@@@@@##@#@@@@@@#@#@#@+''+++###@@@@#@@#@#@@
#####+####''''''''''''''''''#+#+@+@###;'',,,,:;'''':::;;#;####+#;'''''''';';'''';###::.+#+@+##@#@#@##@@'''''''''''''':,:,'@@@@#';,,'#@@@@@@#@@@@@@'''''++@#@#@##@####@@
##@#+####+#'''';''''''''''''+#+#+#+@##'';::,,,,,:;',;:,####@#@@#'''''''''''''''''#@'::;##@#@@@@#@#@#@#@'''''''''''''':::,'##':,,,,,,+#@@@####@@@@@+''+''#@@@##@#@@#@@@@
#@#@@####@#'''''''''''''''''+'#+##@###;';::,,,,,,::::::'#;+#+@##,:::::,::+#;::::::#+::;';',:'';''+''++';;;;;''''''''''::,:.,:::,::,,+#@@@@@@#@@@@@''''''@@@@#@@@#@#@@@@
##@##@#####''''''''''''''''''####@@@##''''';;,,,:::,:,+@###@#@@#,:;:::::#,'#:++:,'#,+'#+''+#'+:';###:,:;::::'''''''''',:::,::;::,`.'+@@@@@@##@#@@#'+'+++@@@@@##@@#@@@@@
#@+#+#+#+###''''''';''''''''+#@#@#+#+#'''''''''':::;::+###@#+@##,::::::,#,+#,'+:,##,+'+:;;##';,';###:,::;:::;''''''''':,::,,:.`'+#####@@@@@##@#@##'++'+'@@@@@@@@@##@@@@
@#@#@###@@@@'''''''''''''''''@@@#@@#@#'''''''''''':,::+@#@@@@#@#,,:,::,,':##,+#:''#,:++;++#++;,++###:::;::::''''''''''',:,:'##@@###@@@@@@@@##@@@@+'++'''#@@@@@@@@##@@@@
##@#@#####@@''''''''''''''''@#@@#@####'''''''''''':::;###@@@@###''''''''''''++''#+@';:;####+'+'''';;:.,,.,,.''''''''''':,::#@@####@@@@@@@##@@@@@@'''''''@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@
#@@@@####@@##''''''''''''''''@@@@@#@##'''''''''''':,:'#@@#@@@###'''''''''''''''+#@@+,:'#@##+@#@#@#@#@#@@#''''';''''''''.:,:+@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@#@#@#+'+''''##@#@###@##++@@
@@@#@#@@@@#@#''''''''''''''''@@@@#####''''''''''';:::''@#@@@#@#@'''''''''''''''###@'::;+#@###@#@#@@@@@@@@'''''''''''''',,,:#@@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@'''+'+'#@@@#@#@#@###@@
##@@@@####@##'''''''''''''''+##@@####@'''''''''''::,:;'@##@@#@##'''''''''''''''@#@@':;'+##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#'''''''''''''';:,:+#@#@#@@@@@@#@##@@@@@'''+''''@#@#@#@@@##+@@@
###@@#@@@@#@#+''''''''''''''##@#@+####''''''''''':,:;''####@####'''''''''''''''###@':::+##+##@#@@@@@#@@###'''''''''''''',::+@#@+@#@@@@#@#@###@@#+'''+'+'@@#@#@#@###+@@@
##@#@##@@#@#@#''''''''''''''#@#@###@@#''''''''''',:,;''##@@@###@'''''''''''''''@#@@+:::'##@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#@'''''''''''''':,:;#@#@#@@@@#@#@@##@@#@'+'''+'+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@@
##+#+###+#+###''''''''''''''@####+##@#''''''''''':,:;''+###+##@#'''';'''''''';##@@@;;:,+'@+@#@@########+@+#''''''''''''',:::##@+@@@@@@#@#@#@@#@+''+'+'''@@#@#@#@#@@#@@@
@#@+@##+#+@#@+''''''''''''''+@+@#@#@#+'''''''''';:::'''###+#+###''''';'''''';'#@#@@':,:'##@@@######@+@#@+@+'''''''''''''::::+##@#@@#@#@+##@@@#+#'''+++'+@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@
'#+#+';#'#+##@''''''';''';''@+#+#+@#@''''''''''',:,:''';#+@+@#@#'';';';''''''''#@@#,:,,#+#+@@@@@##@#@#@+@+##+''''''';'''::::'+@+@@#@#@#@#@#@@+@'''''++++#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@
@+@'';';#+@##@+''';';';';';@+@###@@##''''''''''':::;;';'+#+####++;'''''''';'''#@##@,:.:;####+#+#+@+#+###+#+@#'''''';''''':::'#+##@@#@#@#@@@@+@#''''++'+'@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@
+#'''';''######'';';''''';'+@#@#@##@+''''''''''':::'''''#+@#@##@+'''''''''''''@@@@#;,,,##@#@@@@#@+@+@###@#@@@'''''''''''';:,;+@+@@#@###@@@@#@#+'+'++'+'++@@@@@@#@+##@@@
@#'''''''+@@#@#''''''''';'+@#@#@###+'''''''''''':::';';''####'#'@''''''''';'''###+@,,,:+####+#+#+##@+@####@###'''''''''+'::,;@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@+@'+'++'+'''+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@
#@'''''''####+#'''';';';''@#@#@#@#''''''''''';';,,:;''''''@@#@#@#'''''''''''''#@@@#:.,,##@@+@#@#@+@#@@@#@@#@##''''''''''',:,;'@#@@+@#@##@#@+@'''''++'+'+'@@@@#@#@+@@@@@
@@'''''''@#@+@'';';'''''''@@@#@#''';',,:;;'';'';:,,''''''''+#+#+@+''';;;;;;':;'+#'+':.;+####+#+#+@####+######+#'''''''''':,,:'#@@#@@@@@@#@+#''''+'''''+'+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@
#@'''''''@@#@+''''';'''''#+###''''''':;;:;,:#,,,:,:;''''''''+#+@#@''',:,,,,,'::,#,#+.+:':';,'.+;:.:,;,;##@#@+@+@''''''''',:,;;'+#++#++'####'+''''''''+'+'@@#@#@@@#@@#@@
@@'''''''#+##''''''''''''@#@''''''''',,;+:;,+:,:,,:'''''''''';@+@@#'',,,,,::#:,,,.#+:;;':';,:'##,:::::'+#+@'@+@#@'''''''',,::::::,:;;::+''''''''''+'+'+'+@###@@@####@+@
#@#'''''''++''''''''''''###'''''''''',,':;:;,,:,:,:''''''''';';'###+',,,,,:,+:;:::##:;,':''.;;##;,;::,+#+@+#+#+@@@''''''':::::::::,::::;''+''+'''+#''+'++#@#@#@@@@@@#@@
@##''''''''''';''';''''##@@'''''''''''''''''':::,,;'''''''''''''+@##+;:';';;;';';::,:,'':+,;:',::;:;:,;##+@+##@##@#'''''';:::::::,::::.;;''''''''##+''''''###@@@@@@##@@
#@##''''''''''''''''''####+'''''''''''''''''''',,,;'''''''''''''+@##@+''''''''''''':,::'###+##@#@######@+@+@#@#@@@#@#'''+;:::,:,,,:::::;'''+'++@#@#@+++++'@#@@@@@@@##@@
@#@##''''''''';''''''@@@#@+''''''''++'@@#@##'+':,::'''''''';';''#@+@+#;'''''''''''':;:.+#@#@#+#####+#+#'#+@#@#@@######'''',::;'''''';';'''''+'##@#@#++'+''#@@@@#@##+@@@
#@#@@#+'''';';';';'+###@@#+';';';#+@#@@#@#@+@+@.:.+++''';';';''+@+#'@+#+#+;';';'''':,:,+@#@##@#@##+@+@#@+@#@@####+@+#+@##',::;;';'';';';';'++@+#+#+@''''';+#@@#@##+#@@@
@####++++';';';''++++#@####;';';+++++++#+#+#'#+,,;'++'+++'';++++'@+###+++++'+'+++++:,,:@#####+@+@+@+#+@+@###@##@+#+#+#'##+,:::;;';'';';++####+#+@#@#+''';''@@@@@@###@@@
####+'+'+'+'+'+++'#++++#@@++;;;++++++++'+++'++#.,,++++++'+++'#++#'@'@+++++'+'+'#++#::,:+@#@@@@+@#@+@+@#@+@@#@@@+@+@+#+##++:,,''#+#++#+++#+#+'+'##@@@#'';';'+@@#@+#+#@#@
@@#+++++++'+++++'+'+++++###++'#'+'++#++++#+#'##,.:;+++++#'+'#++++#+#+++++++++++++++:,,,#@##@@#@#@#@#@+@#@#@##@#@#@+#+####+:,:'#+#+##+#+#+##+#+#+#@@##''''''+@@@#@#@@@@@
#@#++'+'+##'#'+'+'+++++++##+'++#++'#+++'+'++#+#,:,;'++++'#'++++;#+#+++++'+;++#+++'#.:.,+###@+#+@+#+@+@+###@#@#@+@+#+#+++++:,,''#+##+#++###+#'#+######+''''''+@@+'';#@#@
##+++#+++@+@+#'#'+'#++#++##+#'#+#+++#+++'+'++##,,::++++'#'+'##+#'@'#++#'++#+####+@#:,::###@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@+#+++#++#+:.:'#####@+@@@@##+#+#+######;''+'++++'''''@@@
#++++'#'++#+@+#'+'#++++++++#'#+#+#+#+++'+++'#+#++;;++++#'#+#+@#+@++'##++++'#+#+#@#@.:.,##@#@#@+@#@+@#@@#@#@#@#++#+#+#+##'+:,.++@@@@#@#@@@@##+#+####+#+#'''+'++++'+'++@@
+#+++#'+'#+#+#+#'+'#+#++++#+#+@##+#+#+++'#'++#+#+#++++++#+#+@###+#'+#'+'+'++####+@#:.,:@##@#@+@#@+@#@#@#@@#@#@##+###+##+#++;'+@@@@#@#@@@@@@#######+#+#+'''''';';''''+#+
@+#+#'+'#+@+###+#+#+#++++++#+###+###+++++'+'++#+++++'+'+'+;#+##;#;+'++'+'+:++#+@#+@`:,:+'#'#'''@+#+##@####@+@++'++#+#+#+'#'#+##@@##+@#@#@@#@+######+#+#+'+++'+'+'+'+##@
+#'+'+'+'#+@+@##++'#+++'++#+###+##@##++#'#+#+#+#+#+#+##++#@+@###+#+##+#'#+#+##@@#@+:,::##+@+@'@#@#@#######+#'#'#+####++'++#+##@@##+@#@@@@+##@@####'++++##'';''+'''+'##+
@+#+#'#+#+@#@##+#+#++#+#+#+##@#####+#'+'#+#+#++#++++'+++'#+##@#+#+#++#'#+#+####@@#@`:.:++#+@+@#@#@##@##+##@+@'#+####+#+#'#+##@@@@+@#@@@@@@+@#@###+#+#+###@'+'+'+''+#@#@
+###+#+##@#@#@#+#+#+#+++#+#+@###@@##+#'#+#+####+#+#+#'+'@#####+#+#++#+#+#+##+#+@+@#:,,:'#+@##+@@##@#######+#+#'####+#+#'#+#+#@#@+@+@##@###@#@@@#+#+#+###@##'''+'+'+#+@@
############+#'+'+++'++++#+########+#'#'#+##+#+#+#+#'#+######+#.####+#+###+##'#+@+@.;,:#'###+@##@###@+##@+#+#'++##+#'#'#'#+####+@+####+#+###@###+++++####@+###'++##+#@@
#@#@#@@#@#@#@##+#+#+#+#########@#@#@##+######+#+#+#+#+###@+#'@'##+#+#+#+++##'++@+@#;:::'#+@#@####@#@#@#@#@##+#+####+#+#+#####@#@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@+######+@#@#@@@@#####@@
@##@@#+@+#@@'#'#++'++##++#++#+#+#+#;#+#+#+##+#'#+#+#+#+@#'#+#+#+##+#'###+##+#'#'@@@:;,:###@####'#+#+@#@+#+######+#+#+#+#+###@#@#@#@@#@#@@@@#@#@##########@@@@#######@@#
#@##@#@+#+###'#+++#+#+#########@+@+@#######+#+#+#+####+###+@+@+@#+#+####+###+#+##@@,,,:+@@#@#@#@#@#@@@#@@@#+#+#+#+######+#+@+@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@@@########@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@
###@##+#+###+#+#+#+#+##+###+##@#@#@#@#######+#+#+####+##@+@+##@@+#+#+####+#'#+#+@@+,,,,#@##+@+@+@###@@@#@#######+########+####@@@@@@+@#@@@@#@#@@######+#@@@@@###@@@#@@@
##@#@+@+#+#+#+#+#+#+##+#+#++'#+#+@+##@###+#'#+##+#++'#'#+#+####++'#+##'#:+'#+####'@.,.:++#'#+#+@####@######+#+#'#+########+@#@@##+##@#@@#@#@#@@@@####+##@#@######@#@#@@
#@####+#+#+#+++#+#+#++#+#+#'#+@+##@#####+#'#+##+#+#'#+#+@+@#@@##'#+##+#+#+#+####@@#,.::##+##@##@#@@####@##+#+#+######+#+#+##@@@####@#@@@##@@@@@@@#######@@@@##@@@##@#@@
#+###+#+#+#+#+###+#+##+#+#'#'@+####@#####'#+####+#'#+#+#+@#@@#@+#+####+#+#+#####@#@,,,;####@@@#@@@@#@#@#;##+#+######+#+####@@#@###@#@@#@###@@@@@#+######@#@####@###@#@@
######+#+#+#####+#+####+#+#+##@#@#@@#@##+#+####+#+####@#@@@@#@#######+###########@@,,:'###@#@@@@#@@@@##@###################@@#@#@@@@@@#####@@@@@@#########@##@@@@###@@@
@#@#@###################+####@#@@@#@###+#+#+####+#+##################+############@.:,'#+###@@@@##@@######################@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@########@#@#@@@@#####@@
@#@#@#@#@#@#############++###@@@@@@@#@############+###@@@@@@@@########+##########@@.,:'####@@@@@@@@@@#@###################@@@@@#@@@@@@###@@@@#@#@#####+#+@@@@#@######@@
#######@#@###########+#'#+#####@#@#@#@##+######+#####@@@@@##@####################@@,,:;###@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#############+####@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@#@#@#@######@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@
@#@#@###@@@##################@@@#@@@@@################@@@@@#@####################@@:::'####@@@@#@#@#@#@#########+#+######+@+@+@#@@+@+#+@@#@#@#@#@@##+#+#'@@#@###@###@@#
##@######@############++#########@@###++##############@@@@@@#@@@#####+######+#+##@@;,;;#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@###########+#########@###@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@@@##@####@@@@@#@#@@@##@
##@####@@@##################@@@###@@##################@@##@#@@@@@###+######+#####@@@##+@#@@#@#@+@#@#@#@#####@##@#####@@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@
                                                                                               
 


Images of Truth at AbeBooks
---
How to cite this:


2 comments :

  1. Great post! 74-5 is probably why I got into reading Maugham. I was just recently talking to my wife about Maugham's amazing work ethic. Also, all those hazardous trips he made to the East just for the sake of our entertainment, enjoyment, and (in some cases) edification.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks, Mike. He must be one of the writers who made a serious effort to establish writing as a profession, outlining professional competencies, popular jargon of the day, that writing isn't a pastime, that it should be taken as any other profession and that it is a full time job.

      Delete