Thursday, 17 September 2015

Analysis: Jumping Johnnies, Willie Maugham, and "The Back of Beyond"

Ah King (1933) - W. Somerset Maugham
Ah King (1933) by W. Somerset Maugham

"The Back of Beyond." Ah King. London: Heinemann, 1933. 220-268.


Last night I picked up "The Back of Beyond," a short story by W. Somerset Maugham, originally published under the title "The Right Thing is the Kind Thing" in Cosmopolitan, July 1931. Two years later, it became "The Back of Beyond" and was collected in Ah King.

It is a story with an intricate narrative structure, which teachers of creative writing or followers of theories would have warned against.

First, I will talk about the story; be patient and I will explain my post title.

"The Back of Beyond" – Plot Structure


At the end of the story (yes, I don't begin at the beginning), one gets the impression that Maugham constructs it around an idea that he wants to express. The labyrinthian path that he has chosen leaves one more than perplexed. One can say, naturally, "Oh, well, that's it?" and closes the book. I am here to prevent you from doing so.

Now I come to the beginning. The story opens with George Moon, the Resident at Timbang Belud, a fictitious place in the Federated Malay States, picturing to himself his last evening in office before sailing back home to England for his retirement.

Going over the motions of his farewell party, Maugham gives us a vivid picture of the background, the life of the expatriates, Moon's character, and the relationships between him and his fellows.

Only quite into the heart of the story that you are forced to realize that Moon isn't really the protagonist. He is only the envelope, but he does bear the address of the destination.

A new character appears, Tom Saffary. We see him through Moon's eyes, but then almost immediately we are snatched away from Saffary and introduced to Knobby Clarke, someone who just died.

The announcement of Clarke's death is used to build Saffary's personality, a strong-minded man having a good head on his shoulders, well-liked by his fellows. And then suddenly Moon comes back into the picture and we are not allowed to forget him just yet.

After the scene of Saffary's composure in the billiard-room, it is a big contrast to see the man crying in front of the Resident, with whom he didn't see eye to eye and hadn't hung out socially for a long time.

So now we have a mystery to solve around a man's death and another's breakdown.

It is then we get into the real story.

Moon again disappears. The narrator tells us the scenes between Saffary and his wife, Violet, in which it is revealed that she had been in love with Clarke, with whom she had planned to run away, but Clarke's wife's untimely pregnancy had ruined their plan (a thoroughly soap opera plot). Their love affair was unconsummated. Her overwrought despair betrays the grief and anguish of their wasted chance.

All this Maugham doesn't tell but slowly show through the exchange and tension between Tom and Violet.

Then we are led into another story, the one between Violet Saffary and Knobby Clarke.

When it finishes, we are back to Moon. This time it is his turn to tell the story between him and his wife, whom he divorced when he discovered that she was having an affair. Meeting his matronly substantial wife again years later, he realized his mistake of giving up years of happiness and comfort and companionship for the momentary satisfaction of his pride disguised as honour.

It is a shocking lesson, to throw social conventions to the wind, to be a cuckold with indifference:
"Honour be damned. One has one's happiness to think of. Is one's honour really concerned because one's wife hops into bed with another man? We're not crusaders, you and I, or Spanish grandees. I liked my wife. I don't say I haven't had other women. I have. But she had just that something that none of the others could give me. What a fool I was to throw away what I wanted more than anything in the world because I couldn't enjoy exclusive possession of it!" (263–4)

Moon's remembrance not only wraps up the story and gives a neat closure, but also brings out the lesson.

So, what is the lesson after this long roundabout? Not to be possessive? To be able to forgive? Or looking from Violet Saffary's point of view, carpe diem instead of waiting in wishy-washiness and let the chance of happiness go by until it is too late? One can say pretty much the same about Moon's story.

The original title was "The Right Thing Is the Kind Thing," which is a quote from the text. After listening to Moon, Saffary is still at the crossroad, unable to decide what would be the right thing to do. It is then that Moon pronounces, "The right thing is the kind thing" (266).

This gives us an inkling of what Maugham was ruminating on.

Moon goes on to advise against Saffary's self-pity, his complaint about being a victim too generous.
"...one needs a lot of tact to get people to forgive one one's generosity..." (267)

And Maugham defines the cynic:
"to look truth in the face and not resent it when it's unpalatable, and take human nature as you find it, smiling when it's absurd and grieved without exaggeration when it's pitiful [...] Mostly human nature is both absurd and pitiful, but if life has taught you tolerance you find in it more to smile at than to weep." (267)

Rightness is reassessed through the sins that have been committed in this story, deception, lies, unfaithfulness, violence. It is almost Christian, to forgive, but it transcends Christianity, because one forgives without penitence, without guilt.

Through this mundane story of betrayal and series of adultery that is probably as old as the earth itself, Maugham introduces a world view void of didacticism.

From "The Right Thing Is the Kind Thing" to "The Back of Beyond"


Maugham changed the title of the story when he incorporated it in Ah King, a practice that was not uncommon; he did the same to a handful of stories. I have not given thoughts to the others, but the change of this particular story is intriguing.

The original title draws attention to the "lesson," rightness becomes arbitrary and subjective. The new title draws attention away from it and focuses on the setting of the story instead.

Firstly, it would fit more into the general scheme of the collection, events that happen to people in remote places. Readers can entertain themselves with their stories as if they had nothing to do with them at all, disassociate themselves from these people's peccadillos, and feel legitimately indignant, either by Violet's adultery or Moon's loose morals.

Secondly, the Oxford English Dictionary defines "the back of beyond" as "a humorous phrase for ever so far off, some very out of the way place" (italics mine). The humour of the phrase is lost in dictionaries; OED's last example is in 1883.

Thus it is jokingly that Maugham points to the foibles of these people in the middle of nowhere, or it is jokingly that he tells us no matter how far we go we behave in the same way. Take your pick.

Jumping Johnnies


The story seems to have been written backward. The ending is what attracted my attention first:
He recalled with what interest in the dry creeks of certain places along the coast he had often stood and watched the Jumping Johnnies. There were hundreds of them sometimes, from little things of a couple of inches long to great fat fellows as long as your foot. They were the colour of the mud they lived in. They sat and looked at you with large round eyes and then with a sudden dash buried themselves in their holes. It was extraordinary to see them scudding on their flappers over the surface of the mud. It teemed with them. They gave you a fearful feeling that the mud itself was mysteriously become alive and an atavistic terror froze your heart when you remembered that such creatures, but gigantic and terrible, were once the only inhabitants of the earth. There was something uncanny about them, but something amusing too. They reminded you very much of human beings. It was quite entertaining to stand there for half an hour and observe their gambols. (267–8)

First of all, "Jumping Johnnies" puzzled me. They were also called "leaping-worms" (Van Dervoort, J. Wesley. The Water World. New York: Union Publishing House, 1883. 76), but you will not have much luck if you try to look for that either. Its scientific name is periophthalminus (Hartig, Georg. The Tropical World. London: Longmans, 1873. 141), commonly known as mudskipper nowadays.



I have the impression that the scene of these little ugly buggers amused Maugham and from there he constructed the whole story.

I can well imagine that not every one would find Moon's reverie amusing, some may even feel offended. Moon's observation is not unlike Philip's in Of Human Bondage (1915):
Philip watched the people. Bullier was not the resort of fashion. It was Thursday night and the place was crowded. There were a number of students of the various faculties, but most of the men were clerks or assistants in shops; they wore their everyday clothes, ready-made tweeds or queer tail-coats, and their hats, for they had brought them in with them, and when they danced there was no place to put them but their heads. Some of the women looked like servant-girls, and some were painted hussies, but for the most part they were shop-girls. They were poorly-dressed in cheap imitation of the fashions on the other side of the river. The hussies were got up to resemble the music-hall artiste or the dancer who enjoyed notoriety at the moment; their eyes were heavy with black and their cheeks impudently scarlet. The hall was lit by great white lights, low down, which emphasised the shadows on the faces; all the lines seemed to harden under it, and the colours were most crude. It was a sordid scene. Philip leaned over the rail, staring down, and he ceased to hear the music. They danced furiously. They danced round the room, slowly, talking very little, with all their attention given to the dance. The room was hot, and their faces shone with sweat. It seemed to Philip that they had thrown off the guard which people wear on their expression, the homage to convention, and he saw them now as they really were. In that moment of abandon they were strangely animal: some were foxy and some were wolf-like; and others had the long, foolish face of sheep. Their skins were sallow from the unhealthy life they led and the poor food they ate. Their features were blunted by mean interests, and their little eyes were shifty and cunning. There was nothing of nobility in their bearing, and you felt that for all of them life was a long succession of petty concerns and sordid thoughts. The air was heavy with the musty smell of humanity. But they danced furiously as though impelled by some strange power within them, and it seemed to Philip that they were driven forward by a rage for enjoyment. They were seeking desperately to escape from a world of horror. The desire for pleasure which Cronshaw said was the only motive of human action urged them blindly on, and the very vehemence of the desire seemed to rob it of all pleasure. They were hurried on by a great wind, helplessly, they knew not why and they knew not whither. Fate seemed to tower above them, and they danced as though everlasting darkness were beneath their feet. Their silence was vaguely alarming. It was as if life terrified them and robbed them of power of speech so that the shriek which was in their hearts died at their throats. Their eyes were haggard and grim; and notwithstanding the beastly lust that disfigured them, and the meanness of their faces, and the cruelty, notwithstanding the stupidness which was worst of all, the anguish of those fixed eyes made all that crowd terrible and pathetic. Philip loathed them, and yet his heart ached with the infinite pity which filled him.

He took his coat from the cloak-room and went out into the bitter coldness of the night. (New York: Doran, 1915. 250-1)

However, Moon's is dramatically toned down. Fifteen years later, there is more good humour than poignancy in Maugham's scrutiny of human nature. Instead of going out into the "bitter coldness of the night," Moon "not displeased with life stepped out into the sunshine" (268). Nevertheless, there is the same compulsion to leave, to go away from the unclothed human nature. Half an hour is more than enough.

Back to the Beginning


To wrap up, I am coming back to the plot structure. Maugham arranges the multiple layers of the story and appears to do it effortlessly. Each character stands out, even the ones that are absent, remote in space and time, like Clarke and Moon's wife.

Unlike some other stories, Maugham doesn't use dialogues to unfold the story within the story, instead we jump from one consciousness to another. We are given rapid changes of scenes, swept off from Timbang Belud to London and then back again, like a ride on a witch's broomstick. It is reminiscent (at the risk of being anachronic) of one of those movies that are constructed by jumping from one couple to another, one time fragment to another.

"The Right Thing Is the Kind Thing"/"The Back of Beyond" by W. Somerset Maugham, first published 1931.

Please visit the Free eBook - Short Stories page to read the story—you can find it in different collections by performing a simple search of the title on the page, or alternatively you can go directly to the collection Ah King.

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