Friday, 24 July 2015

Analysis: "To lead you to an overwhelming question ...": Points of View (1958) by W. Somerset Maugham

Points of View, 1958 Heinemann - W. Somerset Maugham
Points of View (1958) - W. Somerset Maugham

Points of View (London: Heinemann, 1958)


Points of View is a collection of essays by W. Somerset Maugham, first printed in 1958, the penultimate work in book form that the author published.

It consists of five essays: "The Three Novels of a Poet," "The Saint," "Prose and Dr. Tillotson," "The Short Story," and "Three Journalists." From what Stott registers, it seems that only "The Saint" was published before the book came out.

By that time Maugham was eighty-four years old and had done with writing fictions and plays.

What I find interesting when I reread the collection is the comparison that the occasion allows me to make. I picked it up after reading Don Fernando (1935) again (which, by the way, is calling for a post...), which was highly praised in its time for its content and style.

With twenty-three years in between I am not sure why I should be surprised at all at the ease that Maugham's prose flows in contrast with some awkwardness that one cannot help but notice in Don Fernando. I think what makes me take note of this is Calder's comment on Maugham's "loss of inventive power" and that he was a "spent-force" (Willie. The Life of W. Somerset Maugham. London: Heinemann, 1990. 315).

By the time Maugham was composing the Points of View essays he was suffering from writer's cramp. I could well imagine the painful scrawls on the pages, which I had the opportunity to witness in some of Maugham's letters. Nevertheless, his essays are still delightful.

The style is that of The Summing Up (1938), simple and masterful. That certainly had not diminished.

Curtis and Whitehead retrieve two contemporary reviews when Points of View was published, one by Frank Kermode and the other by Karl Pfeiffer (W. Somerset Maugham. The Critical Heritage. London: Routledge, 1987. 411–14).

Fifty-seven years after, I assume readers most probably focus on something quite different from these two critics. Praises, cold or warm, go to Maugham's lucid style. It soothes the eyes (mind) and fits like a pair of soft and comfortable gloves. I have very mixed feeling of the term "readable," a word so ambiguously neutral that something that is supposed to be good can easily be turned into meaning quite the opposite.

Maugham never intended to stand side by side with academic critics, who guard their privileged position and sound title with jealousy, which is their right to do so after years of burning the mid-night oil for hard and very often dry tasks, not to mention the aftermath of labouring to pay off the student loans. However, it does not mean that his research was less rigorous or undemanding. It took him six years to compile Points of View, and there is no reason to doubt his claim that he read two to three hundred books on Spanish Golden Age for Don Fernando.

Having said that, my intention is not to investigate whether Maugham was right about Goethe, or Tillotson, or Chekov, or Katherine Mansfield, or Henry James, or the three journalists. It seems little to the point, since our reading habits have changed, literary fashion has changed. In this Maugham is insightful. For his essays to survive to posterity, perhaps "readability" is the winning factor.

The five essays have in common Maugham's rumination on the effects of the life of his chosen subjects on their works. He studied in details each of them and discussed significant events he could find in biographies and letters that determine the content and mode of their creations. Although it may not be felt at the first reading, Maugham has selected the incidents with care. His thesis is that it is the author's personality that matters. He sees in each of them idiosyncrasies so prominent and intriguing that compensate for whatever else is lacking.

Furthermore, these essays are like one long defence against the accusations that Maugham received for using real persons as models for his fictional characters. Putting his subjects's lives side by side with their artistic creations it is hard to argue otherwise, and it would be a meaningless exercise. Writers/artists use their own lives as materials, they transform and rearrange them just as the demiurge shapes the world into meaningful existence.

Despite the calm, the ease, however, I find the collection strangely disturbing. Since I was talking about Don Fernando I will use it as an example.

In this earlier work Maugham transmits his enthusiasm for Golden Age Spanish literature and society as a whole; his delight is unmistakeable. His subjects at times look ridiculous, but they are colourful and lively. They have their flaws, but these are what make them endearing. Words jump out from the chapter on food, for example, one can almost hear Maugham smacking his lips. Ink topples from the tip of his pen when he dissertates on tricks to get the best dishes and traps to avoid tasting the bad ones.

The tone in Points of View is very different. The artists (I use this term so as to include the swarmi, whose life can be seen as the product of a self-recreation process) must have aroused in Maugham certain fascination. He succeeds in making them interesting, whether you like them or not and whether you think them deserving the attention (Kermode finds the Goncourts obsolete).

After giving it much thought I will attempt to explain the unsettling feeling.

The people that Maugham has chosen are public figures, except the swarmi who may not be familiar to his readers. They have come to our time and achieved a certain immortality. In this way, they have succeeded. His first essay is on Goethe, a revered name in literary history. However, under Maugham's pen he is as human as anyone else. Maugham in The Summing Up warns his readers against hero worship and suggests to keep a roll of toilet papers beside the eminent judges so as not to forget that they had human needs and faults too (London: Heinemann, 1938. 57).

These worldly and successful people, who had worked hard in different ways to get where they were, seemed at the same time so fragile and vulnerable. In spite of their achievements, their lives were filled with uncertain aims and unfulfilled dreams; Maugham is able to pierce through worldly success and look at things from a different point of view, measuring his subjects' lives through an examination of the journey that they had gone through, from there to draw the yardstick. Perhaps because of this, there is always a lingering sad tone, even though some of the incidents are humorous and charmingly wicked, that we never accomplish with our lives what we set out to do, all the lost dreams and hopes will gradually be left behind.

Maugham does not take on face value his subjects' own evaluation of themselves. He does not judge them but he does not mince words. The "good" and the "bad" (as society establishes) are all on top of the table. The openness as he lays the facts bare at times makes one winced.

Once the exemplary stories were very much in fashion. In the classical age, for example, we have Diogenes Laertius's Lives and Opinions of the Eminent Philosophers and Plutarch's Lives, which had their big revival in the Renaissance. These heroic people, successful, courageous, are to give us ordinary mortals valuable lessons on how to conduct our own lives and to cheer us up when we encounter difficulties. Looking back from years forward, the redeeming features are what shine, so one can say, "After all, it's worth it!" The anguish and hardship seem to diminish and only triumph dwells. So we can pick ourselves up and plough on. This is still very much in the culture of our days. The success story of this person who got bankrupt but eventually became a millionaire, of that person who followed this diet and lost 20 lbs in one month (and kept it), depending on the type of lesson that is supposed to be taught.

There is no exemplary story in Maugham's biographical portraits. Their lives were very hard; they survived simply because life must go on. Some of them were despicable and they were like that because of the circumstances that were thrust upon them, or simply because they were like that. It was out of their control. There is no relief in Maugham's narratives, no rose-tinted glasses. There is no triumph. The last words, perhaps meant to assuage the depressing tone: "God will forgive you, Monsieur Léautaud, because you have loved animals," barely console.

The final and hardest lesson to swallow is that we have to look back upon ourselves and face the conclusion we draw of our own lives.

I venture to say that perhaps it was not the "loss of inventive power" that Maugham was distressed about, but the "overwhelming question"—although one would not think of T. S. Eliot normally when reading Maugham—that begged for an answer.

Of the five essays, this time (conditioned by my time of life) I find most engaging the ones about Goethe and the three journalists. I am not going into details about the essays; it is best that one goes and reads them for oneself and undergoes this very private journey.

Points of View - First Edition


Points of View (1958) by W. Somerset Maugham, dust jacket
Points of View (1958) by W. Somerset Maugham, dust jacket

Nothing much special about this first edition, except the curious pamphlet, the separate issue of "The Saint," that Stott mentions. It would be interesting to see a copy of it.

The UK edition precedes the US one, with the latter published in 1959. Although Stott puts the note about Maugham's announcement that this would be his last book under the US edition, it is also present on the UK dust jacket.

Copies of the first editions of this late work are very cheap.

                                                         `                                          
                                                        `                                           
                                                      `                                             
                                                `,      .,:,,,  :.                                  
                                               `      ,.   :`  +#'                                  
                                            ``  :@#      `:;   +'+#:                                
                                         .,,` `##:  ,: `,,:   :,:.  ;:.                             
                                      ,:,;`'####:,''@' ``;   ,:`    `                               
                                  .;+#:`` :+++  .,';;`  ;:  `.```      `,                           
                                 :#@@: ```#;,  ` ', ,`  +  ``    `.    .:`                          
                            `   .+#@'    .#    `.``        ;: `     :.,:`                           
                           `   .:;;'     .    . :          `: `      `'.   ;,                       
                          ``  `. `#      `   ,:,;   , ,   ,.``         .  .,:+                      
                          .` `,,  #   . .   `. .   .  :   ,:        ``   ,  ,:'                     
                          ,. ` ' .`   ```   ;: : `        '                                         
                               . ,     .    ``     `    . ,             `    :`                     
                         `   `   :`    `    ``     .    ,.``  `  `      `   ''  ++                  
                       `     `    ,                . `  :,    `            :.``  :#                 
                             `    .``     ` ` `   `, ,  :.  `             .;.  `'@@+                
                     `    `   `           ` :     `.    :   `             ,;`  @@. +                
                              .             ,    ``  . `'   `.            ,.  #@    ,               
                     ``,`                   .    ,`  , `:   `.   `           ;#  `##+;              
                        `,  `,                   `   ' ,,   ;               ''` .`   ,`             
                            .:;           `          # ':   .   `    . `   +..       `              
                           `.+,            ``        ;`+.  `        .``   .;`      ..               
                          `:.      `. `              `:;,  `  `    ,.      .    :;.                 
                         ` `;    .``                 .  : .  `     .       ,  ,::     `             
                       `;::;`   ,`                     `.                    ::`   .::,             
                        ``..    `     `,,`             .                     `    `,` :             
                       ;;;',        ``  ` `                                   .        .            
                      ::.+;.        `                                         ` `                   
                         #                                                    ';      `             
                      `.'+                                      `             ;`,::` `.`            
                     .,,,#      .                               `                  ,: ``            
                     ,:``#`                          ````   ``.,.`  .',        ::.  ,  :            
                      ``,+            ``                              `;,      `      ,,`           
                      ` .`     ..,```,'.                                `.     .      .             
                     ..`.     `               .`             `,,::+',          :+`    ;`            
                       :;   ``                  `.`..`.`            .:;'.      '.                   
                       '   ``                       `                   `,     .+.                  
                    `..             .;:;,                     ```.,;:..   `      ;:.  `..,`         
                   `,,`                 ,,:`           ` ``.````.`  ,` ;,  `     `   ,:             
                    ``                     .,,`                         ',       ;`  :.             
                   .,.        `  `,;;::`     .``                 `;+##;  ;.      :   ..             
                   ,,.        `     ..:,;:     ```          `..:::    `+  ,     `.    `             
              ;#.                        ,.       `.```..` `            ;  `    ``    `.            
              `@'               .,,.         `                  .::,:,`  :            .             
               #@             `                                        .  `                         
            `   '                `:+.                        `                  ,  `` ``.       `   
           `.    :  `          `:,+##:                               ``         `   `  ,:`          
            .#   ,             ,`  +#@### `,                        `  ``        ::,.`              
             @`  ``          `:     ,'##@#@#'                    `+#'              ,`               
             #`   .          ;:    `:;+###'@#.        `    ` ..;+####'    .        .     .`         
           ` .    `     `   +;`  `    .#'`,@+,       `.   `..##;+;`,'#@;`  ,`     `  .   `          
          ``   ;           .+:          +;.##;+   `   `   `::,``,   .,###'`,    `                   
              `@:          :+;`,   .;`   , ;.`#+`              `: `;'##,;+;:           ,            
           `  ,@@`          #'#  +@  '@@  `#'.;#`        .,  ;;          ,'+          ::            
              ,#@`         `'## : @@@@@##  ;#;.':       `:` :'            ,'         .+             
              ,+           `;:.    @@@,  #. .'``'       `, .' .#++'@+               :'              
            ` :           `';  ,          @    `+        ` :;+.'#@@@@'    #:        @'              
              .                 ,              ,.       `,` +   @@@@  +'; ,`       +#.  `           
           .  `           `.     `,',   .+     ,                 #@,    '         ,#.   `           
                          ``            ++ .  `;                          `       #'                
            `             .` ..        ,: ;   :,            ''      ,,    ;:      +:                
          ` ,      `          .`        .;.   ;       `   :` '+`           .       `                
            ` `                ;        +,   :.       ,    +  :       .   `                         
                              .:`     .+,    :`       :`   +:    .;;',:   ``                        
                :             .`     ,'`     ``       ,,    +        .;    .          .             
            `  `'              `  `.`.        `       ,     ..       ;,               .             
            `  ,+          `.     ..                 .`  :   ;.      ,             .                
               +'          ``    .,                  `        #+,   `   `          ,                
             . #           .:+;  ..       ,`,`            `    ...              ,.                  
            `:   `;       `:+;:  `       ;';+,    `       `         `   .       #.                  
             .   +@;      .::`          '+``+,    .    ,,`        `::,  ,`      #                   
          ``   :#@@'     ..,,          :++  ;`    `    :+'`        `,'. `:      ',                  
                `   .    ,``    ,`    ;'+         ``     `;`             ``   ``                    
       `            ,    `     '.    +, ,                 ':           `      ,`    `               
      ``           ,+    .    ;;    ,+   '.               `;                  :,                    
         `         :+    `   `:.    '    ;+##             `+'             `   ;.   `                
                   ';    `   +,    :.    `,@@@        `@@: `#`    .,          ,`                    
                  `;`       ,:     :    `  ;#@  ',:: +@@.   #;`    `    `     `                     
          .        ;`       :      `     ` :'@#.@@@@@@+.    ,+`         `     `                     
           ` `   ``:`       `    .`       ` `,#@@@@;`        +'   ``    `    `                      
             `     :`           ..        ` ...##:            '   `,         .                      
                  .;`    ` ``  .'           ..:,              ;:   .         `                      
                   ,     , .   .;                      `      `;             `                      
                   ;`   `.     :  ,                            ;            `                       
            `     `''   ``    `:        :` ,+`                 ..                                   
                   @@   `     ;, ',``;+@@@@@@@#    .            ,           @                       
           `      ;@@   `     :  '+#+, ++  .;#@: +@@@@#         .  `       :@+                      
                 '+##:  ``  `.                 .;#@@@+@@@.         ``      @#:,`                    
                .' ;'#   ,   `                          ,+#;`              #;`,'`                   
  `      .,;:``',#  '#   `      .   ,                      +#+,`   `      ''``,,:                   
  ` `` ` ```  `,    :@   `         `,                              ``    ,#`  ``                    
 ``. ` .,     `   .`;##      `     ,                                `    ;#,                        
. ``         `.:` . ,##      ,,    .       ```   `                        #;                        
            :  ``  `;+@`  `  .:    .        ```  `:,..:,   ``  `          :..          ``           
`      `  ``.`  .   ,`#       .`  `.     `   ``   `````    ..  .       '  .,`                       
       .  `  .  `  `:''    ,   `   `                        `  `      ;:  .,`                       
        `.         `.`'    ,.      ``                                ::   `,                `       
         ,           .@  `` ;   .  `.                               :'                              
         `          .++   `  '  ;    .`                            ,+.      `                 `     
       `            `,;    ` `;,`    ..                     `      +;       .                   ``  
       `    `       `.;       :;     `,                   .:      +;`     ` `                       
                ``  `;;      ` ,      ,.                  `     ,+;'      `                         
               `.  ```;         .  `  ..:                    .'#+,''      . `                       
          ```   .`   `.         `,      '`     `             '#';:'`      ` `                       
      `.  .` ``  `       `       `..  ```,                 ,',,`.,:         `    ,    .   ..        
    `:`           `  ` . .        `.  , ';,;            .;.';    `          `   @@   ; , #,,#       
   `:',           :,, ` ``           ,;   '###:..  +:  :#+, , .`,`         `     @          #       
   ,,,`            `             `    ,:  , +@#@#@@@@@@@@     .`,          .     @        `@        
   :`              ,,         `        ''+       @@@@@@##`    ,:         ` .     @       ;@         
  ,`                ,`. ``                 .  `` . :;,      `,;          .      @@@      @@@@       
 ,,  `              '.  :, `  .`       ,,    `@;.@@@@@#  .  `,.                                     
 .                  ``` ``                  @; @@@@@  `@    ,,                                      
,              `     ,. `          .    .  '  @@@@#    #   .,.                                      
`              `.`   `..   .           `  #  @@@@`     @@                                           
'#+#'#+#+#'#+########'#####'#+#+@#####+#'#'#+######@##@+@+@+@#@###+@+@+@#@#@@#@+@+@#@#@#@#@@#####@+@#@+##@#@#@@#@@#+@#@@@@##'#+@#@@+@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@
@#@+@#@#@'@#@@#@#@@#'###+#+###+#######@+#+#'##@#@###@#,@+@#######+#+@+@@@#@##@#@#@@@@@#@@#@#@#@#@#@+@#@#@#@@@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@#@#@#+@#@#@@@##@###@#@@##@@#@#@#@##@#@@@#@
'@+#'#+#+##@#@###+#;#+@##+#+@###@@@@+@+#+@+@#@#@#@@@@#@;@#@#@@#@#@+##@@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@#@+@+@##+@#@#@#@@@@###@+@#@@@@#@+@+@#@@@@+##@###@@#@#@#@@@@#@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@
#+##@+@+@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@@@@@
##+#;@+@+#'@#@#@#@@###@@@@@+@#@+@@@@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@#@#@@+@#@#@#@@+@+@+@@@@+@+@#+;++@+@#@#@#@#@@@#@@+@#@+@#@@@@#@+@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@###@+##@@#@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@#@#@@
#+#+@+#+@'@+@+@@@#@@@@####+@##+#@###@#@+@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@#@##@#@#@+@#@@#@#@+@#@#@@#@##.,,#+@+@+@+@#@#@#@@#@#@+@+##@@@@#@+@#@#@@###@#@@#@#@#@#@#@@+@#@@@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@
'@+#'@+#+#+##@#+@#@'#+##@##+@+#+##+#'###'#+##@###+#+#:@+@#@#@#+#'#+@#@#+@##+@#@@#@#@+;,,'#+@#@;@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+##@#@@+@+@###@@###@#@@###@+##@#@@###@#@@#@@#@##@#@#@@@@@@
@+#+#'@+#+#+@###@@###@#@###@##+@###+@#@+#+@+@##@#@##+@+@#@@@@##+@#@#@@###@+@#@@#@#@#,,,,++@+@#@+##@@@#@@#@#@+@+@@###@+@#@#@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@#@#@@#@#@@@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@
+#+#'@+@+@+@#@@+@#@##+@###@#@#@#@@@#+@#@#@#@##@+@+##@'@#@#@#@@+#+@#@#@##@#@#@@@@+@#@',::;#+@#@#@#@#@#@@#@+@#@#@#@#@@+@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@##@@@#@@@@@@
#+#+#####+####'#+#+#+#+#+#+@###@###'##@###@#@@#@#@#@+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@:,:,'#@#@#@#@@@@@##@+@+@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@+@#@#@@#@##+@@@@@@+@#@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@
####+##+#####'#'@+#'#;#'#+######+#+#+##########+@'@+#'@@@###+#+@#@###+@+@#@@@@#@+@#@,:,:'@#@#@@@@@@@@#@#@#@@@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@##@@#@@@@@@@@
@###@#+#'#@###;###+@+@+@+@+@#####+@+@@#@###@+@#@+@+@#@@@@@@+#+##@@##+@+@##,,:##+#+@#:,:,+#@@#@@@@';:##+##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@+@###@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@
#@@@##@#@@@#@+@#@#@+@#@#@#@##@#@#@+@##@#@+##@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@.,.:.'#+@@@,:,;'@@@@#@':;:;;#@#@#@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@+@#@#@#@#+@#@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@@@
+#+###+#'@#@+#+@#@#@+@###@###'#'#'@#@#+#+###+#'@#@#@##@@@##+##@#+#+@#@+@@',:,,..;#@@:,;:##@@#;;,::;.'#+@#@#@@#@###@+@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@#@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
#+#+#'#+##@.#+@#+###########+#+#+#+##+#+#+#'#+#+###@##+#+@'##@###+@+@+####;,,,,,.;'#,;,;;#@':,::::`:#+@#@##@####+@+#@@@##+@#@@@##@###@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@#@@#@#@#@@@@@
'#+@+@'#'###+##@###@#@@###@#@+@#@#@#@@+@+##@#@+@@@##@+@+@+@##@+#+@#@#@@####';,,,,,;';:::+#:::;,,`,'#+####+#'#+#+@+#+##+#+@#@#@#+#+@#@@@@#@+@#@@@##@###@#@@@@#@##@@@@@@@
@+@##'@+@##+@+@###@#@@#@#@##+@#@#@@@@#@###@#@#@@@##@+@#@+@#@##@+#+@#@#@@@@+@+#,:,::+:::,#,:,;..:#+@#@@@@#@+@+@+#+@##@##+@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@@@@###@#@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@
+#+#+#'#+#'#+###+'#+#+###'+'++######+#+#+##@+####+#+@+@+@#@##@+@+@#@@####+@#@#@':,:';,,:+;,:.;+@####@##+#+#+@###@#####+@@@@#@#@#@#@@@@###@#@@@@@##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@@
@#@#@+@#@+@#@##@'##@##'#+#+######@#+#;@+########+#'#'#+@+@###'#+##@#####+@#@##@##::':,:,',:,+@##@@@@+@+#+@+@#@#@@##@#+##@@#@##'@#@#@@#@+#+@#@@##+#+####@@##@##@#@@@@@@@
+##@+#+@#@+@#####+@#@+@+#+#+##@@###@+@#@#@##@+##@+@+#+@#@##@+##@@#@##+@###@@##@@##+#,,::',;###@#@###@##+@###@#@@@@@@+##@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@@@@@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@
##@#@+@#@#@#@@#@+##@##+#+##@#@##@###@+@#@####@#@+@#@+@#@#@@+@+@#@@#@+@#@+@#@@@@#@#+',,::#,;#@##@@@@@#@+@+@#@@@@@@#####@#@@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@#@@@##@#@#@#@#@#@@##@@#@@@@@@@
##+#+#####+@#+#+#+#+#+#'#'#+##+#'#'#;+#####+#'#:#+@+###@@@##+@#@#+###+@#@@@##@#@+:.'.;,;;;,;##@#@###@#@#@@@@@@@@#####@@#@#@###@#@@#@#@##@@@@#####@@@@@###@###@@@@@@#@@@
@#@#@+#########@+#'#'#;#+####@#+@+#+@+@@@@#@#@#@+@+@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@#:,:,::;:#,;:;#+####@#@#@#@#@@@@@@+###@@@#@#@#@#@@@@@##@#@@@@###@#@@@@@##@##+@@@@@@@@@@@
#@#@#@######@+#+@+@#@+######@###+#'#+#+'''''';';'''''+++#@#@#@@@#+@#@#@#@@@@#@#,,,,:.::'#::;::'#@+@##+##@@#@#@#@#@###@@#@;@#@+'''''';''''''+@#@###@@@###'''''@@@@@@#@@@
+###+#+#+#+#'#+#####+######+#+#'#;'''';';';''';'''''''''''';+##########@#@##@#.,,.,;::::+';:;,.++#+@+##@@@#@@###@#@+@#@###'''''''''''''''''''''#@@@#@#@'''+''@@@#@##@@@
@######+@+@+@+@+##@#@#@#@##@#+''''''''''';''';';'''''''''''''':'#+@#@#@@@@#@#,,,,.#@,;:;'##;::::'#####@@@@@@#@#@#@@##@@#'''''''''''''''''''''''''+@#@#''''+++@@@#@#@@@@
#@@#####+##@#@#@#@#@#@#@@###';';';'''';';''''';'''''''''''''':;,;'#@#@@@@#@',,.,,+#@::;;####;:,::'#@#@@@@@#@@@;+##@#@@'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''+@'''''+'+#@@@@@@@@@
#########+#+#+@+@#@#@#@#@#'''';';'''''';';''''';'''''''';''';::,,:''####+@;,,,,,#@##,:::#####:;::;'@@@@####@@,,:###@#''''''''''''''''+++'''''''++''''''''++'+#@#@@@@@@@
##+##@+#+@##+@##########'''''''''''''';'''''''''''''''''''''':,,,,:''@@@@',.,.:#@@#@,,:;###@#@;;:::'@#@#@#@#:,:;:+#'''''''''''''''##@@@@@@+''+''''''''''''+'@#@@@@@@@@@
##+#@+####@'@#@#@##@@@+'''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''''';:,:,::''#@+,.,.:#@@###,,,;@#@#@##:':;;;@#@#@+,,::,,@'''''''''''''''##@@@@@##@#++'+'''''''''''@@#@@@@@@@@@
##+@####+###@#@@@####'';''''''''''+''''''''''''''''''''''##'''';,:::,'';,,,.;#@@#@#@,,,;#@#@#@@@'':;:+@#@;,,;:.'#+'''''''''''''+#@@@@@@@@@@#@#''''''''''''##@#@@@@@@@@@
#+#############@##'#'''';''''''####+#;'''''''''''''''''@@@@@@+''',,,::;,:..:#@@@@@#@,,.'@@@#@###@:;:::##,,,,,:#@+'''''''''''''+#@@#@@@#@@@##@@+''''''''+''#@#@@@@@@@@@@
#@#@@@#@#@@@@@#@@#+'''''''''''@@####+@'''''''''''''''''#@@@@#@+''':;:::::,:#@#@@#@#@::,;#@@@#####@;:,;::,,:,##@'''''''''''''''##@#@@@@@@#@@@@@@''''''''''+#@@@@@@@#@#@@
@@@##@@@@@##@#####'''''''''''######+##''''''''''''''''@#@@@@@#@'''':::,,,:'@@@@@@#@@:,:;@@@@#####@#:,:;:,:,+#@'''''''''''''''@#@@@@@@@@##@@@@#@#'''''''+'#@@#@@@@#@#@@@
#@#@#@@#####@##+#''''''''''''@##+#+##@''''''''''''''''@#@@@####@''''::,,:'''@@#@#@@@::,.#########@@@.,,,:'@@#+''''''''''''''+@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@@###'''''''''#@@@@@@@@#@@@@
##@@+#+##@##+#+#''''''''''''###'###+@#''''''''''''''''@@@#####@@@''::,,,''''+@##@@@#',;,##@#@#@@@@@@@,,,:'#@''''''''''''''''##@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@@#'+'+''''@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
##@@###@#######+''''''''''''@########@''''''''''''''''@@@#@##@@@@':::,,;'''''#@@@@@@.:.:+#@@#@@@@##@@+,:::#+''''''''''''''''#@##@##+##@#@@#@#####''''''''#@@@@#@###@@@@
@#@####@######+''''''''''''##@###@@###''''''''''''''''#@##+##@@@@',,,,''''''''@@@@@#,,::##@#@#@@#@@@#@':,:,''''''''''''''''+@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@+@@@#'+'''''@@#@#@#@#@@@@@
@#@####@#####@'''''''''''''#@###@@@@#@''''''''''''''''@@@##@@@#@@,,,:'''''''''@@@@@@.,,:##@###@###@@@#@;:.,:'''''''''';''''@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@#'''''''@@@@@#@@@@@@@@
######@##@#@#@'''''''''''''@####@#@#@#''''''''''''''''####@@@#@#,.:,;'''''''''@@@#@#:,:,#@@@@@#@#@@@#@#@,:,:;''''''''''''''@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@'+'+'''@@#@#@#@@@@@@@
@##@#@@@@#@##'''''''''''''+@#####@@@@#+'''''''''''''''#@@@#@#@#'.:,:'''''''''''##@@@:,:;##@#@###@+@#@#@##,,,:''''''''''''''#@+@+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@#@#'''''''##@#@###@#@@@@
#@###@####+#''''';';'''''''+@+@#@#@@@@'''''''''''''''+@#@@@#@##,',,';'''''''''''@#@@:,,'+#+@+#+@#@#@#@+@#'::::';';''''''''#@###@###@@#@+@+@@@##@#@'+'''''#####@#@#@@@@@
#@@@#@##@#@#';''''''''''''@#+##@+@#@#@'''''''''''''''#@@@@#@#@+',,;;'''''''''''''@@@:,,;#+@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@#::::;';'''''''';#+#'#+@##@##+#####@#@#@#'''''''++@@#@@@@@#@@@
###+########'':''''''';'''+######;#'##''''''''''':,';@#@#@@#@+##,;'';''''''''''''#@@;,:'+###+@#@#@#@#@#@@'':,:,'''''''''''@@#@#@@@@#@#@#@#@@#@#@@@'''++''#@#@@@@@@#@#@@
#@#@+@#####'''''''''''''';+#@##@##+@+@''''''''''',,,:+@@@@#@+,+#.#''';'''''''''''@@@,;,'#+@+#+@+@#@+@#@#@'';::::;''''''''':;#+@##@#@#@+@@@@#@#@@@@#''+'''@@@@@@#@#@#@@@
#@@+##@##@#''';'''''''''''#@@###@+@+@#'''''';';',,,,,.'##@@+..:`+#;';'''''''';''''@@;,,+'#+@+@+##@+#+@+##'''::,,;;'''''';:.,'##@@#@#@+@@@@#@#@#@@@@'+'+'+#@@#@#@+@#@#@@
@##@+@#+@+@;''''''''''''''@####@+@#@#@+'';';''''',,,:.;,+#+:.,.:++'''''''''';';'''@#..,;#+@+@+@#@#@#@#@#+''';:,:.''''':::,:,;'@##@+@'##@@##+@+#@#@#''';''+@+######@#@@@
+##+@#+#+#;''';'''''''''''+###@##+@#@@'''';';';''';:,:,;.:@...,###;';'''''''';';''@@,,,''#+###+##@#@+##@'''''::,,:'':,,,,,.,'###@#@+#+@@#@#@#@#@@@#'''''''@@###@#@#@#@@
@+###+#'#+''';'''''''''''''#'#+#'####@''';';';';'''';,',;,,,.:+'@'';'''''''';'''''##::,;#+@##+#@@@@#@@@@'''''',,,:;:::,:,.##@@@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@+''+'+'+@#@#@@@@@@@@@
+@+###'#+@''''''''''''''''##@+@+@+@#@#+';';';''''''''+';.;,.:,##+#;'''''''';''''''+#:,.;'#+#+##@########''''';;,,,:,::,,:+#@#@@##+#+@#@##@+@#@@@@#+'''+'++@@#@#@@@#@@#@
@+@+#'@+@+';'''''''''''''''####@+##@#@#'';'''''''''''+#@,:,,.##+@+'''''''''''''''''#,.'+#+@###@@+@+#@@#+'''';'':,:,:,,';'+@@####'@#@#@@+#+##@@##+#+''''''+##@@#@###@+@#
+#'#+#+#++;''''''''''''''''####+#+@+@##''';''''''''''#@#+:,`,##@+''''''''''''''''''@.,:+##@@#@@@@#@@@#@'';''''';:,:,;';''@@#@#@+####@@#@#@#@@@@+##@'++++'@#@@@@@@#@#@#@
@#@#@+@+@''''''''''''''''''##@#@+@#@@@+'';'''''''''''@+@,,..'+#+@''''''';''''''''''#,,:'@####@@@+@#@#@#'''''''''::,,;''''@##+#+@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@#@##+++'@#@#@@@@@@#@+@@
:+;#'#:+'':'''''''';''';''';+'#'@+#+##;';';'''''''''';@'.,..##+#+'''''';';'''''';''@.;.'+#####@#@+@##+''''''''''':,,:';''+#+#+@#@@#@##+@#@@@@##+##@#@#@@+@#@@@@#@####+#
@+#+##@+@''''''''';';';';'''+@#@+@####+;';'''''''''';'#:..`++'#+#''''''';';'''''';'#,.,'##@@+@+##@#@+''''''''''''::,:;'''@+@#@#@#@@#@+@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@@@@@#@@
##+@'###+'''''''';';''';''';#+@#@#@##@+'''''''''''''''@`...#@#+@+'''''''';';'''';''#,:.++@###+@+@#@#@'''';''''''';:,,;'''#@+@+@#@#+@#@#@#@@+@#@#@@#+@@@##@@#@#@#@#@#@#@
@+@+#'@+@''''''''';';';';';';####@###++;'''''''''';''';:..+@#+#+@''''''''';''''''''#,.:+@@#@#@#@#@#@+'''''''''';'',,,:'''@+@+@#@##@+@###@@#++@++@@@+@+@+++++#@#@#@###@@
##+@'@#@#'''''''';';';';';';'+#+@###+#''''''';''';';'':.,.####'@+'''''';';';'''';';#.:.#'@###+#+@+@#@+''';'''''''':,,:;'''@+@+@#@@###@#@@@@+@+#+##@++##+++@+@#@#@#@##@@
@##+@+@#@''''''''';';';';';';++##@####';'''''''''';'''.:.++##+#+'''''';';'''';';''++:,:'#@+##@+@#@+@+@''''''''';''',,,:'''#@#@@#@+@+@#@@#@+++#@+@#+++#@+@#@+++#@@@@###@
##+@+@###'''''''';';';';';';''####+#+#''''''';''';';',:.,'##+@+@+'''''';';'''';'''##,:,+###+#+#+@#@#@@''''''''''''':,::'''@@@@#@+@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@'+'@#@@@@#@@@#@#@@@
####@#@##+;''''';''''''''''''#####@+##''''''''''''''':,:;####+@#@''''';'''''';';''@#:.,'##+@#@#@@@#@#@+''''''''''''':,:;'+@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@#@##'''+'@@@@#@@@@@@@@#@
###@#@###+''''''';'''''''''''@#@+#+##@'''''''''''''';:,,###@#@#@@'''''''''''''''''@+,:,+@#@#@#@@@@##@@'''''''''''''',:,,''@@#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@++'''+@@@@@@@@@@@#@#@
####@#####;';'''''''''''''';++##@+@###'''''''''''''',:,.#+#+@###+';'''''''''''''''#+;,,++@+@@#@#@+@#@##''''''''''''':,,:''##@###@@###@#@#@@#@#@#@@'''''++##@#@@@@#####@
###@#@#@##''''''''''''''''''##+@#@#@##'''::;'''''''':,,;+####@###'''''''''''''''''@+::,+@#@#@@#@#@#@#@@'''''''''''''',:,''#@@@@@@@##@#@@@@@@#@#@#@+''+++###@@@@#@@#@#@@
#####+####''''''''''''''''''#+#+@+@###;'',,,,:;'''':::;;#;####+#;'''''''';';'''';###::.+#+@+##@#@#@##@@'''''''''''''':,:,'@@@@#';,,'#@@@@@@#@@@@@@'''''++@#@#@##@####@@
##@#+####+#'''';''''''''''''+#+#+#+@##'';::,,,,,:;',;:,####@#@@#'''''''''''''''''#@'::;##@#@@@@#@#@#@#@'''''''''''''':::,'##':,,,,,,+#@@@####@@@@@+''+''#@@@##@#@@#@@@@
#@#@@####@#'''''''''''''''''+'#+##@###;';::,,,,,,::::::'#;+#+@##,:::::,::+#;::::::#+::;';',:'';''+''++';;;;;''''''''''::,:.,:::,::,,+#@@@@@@#@@@@@''''''@@@@#@@@#@#@@@@
##@##@#####''''''''''''''''''####@@@##''''';;,,,:::,:,+@###@#@@#,:;:::::#,'#:++:,'#,+'#+''+#'+:';###:,:;::::'''''''''',:::,::;::,`.'+@@@@@@##@#@@#'+'+++@@@@@##@@#@@@@@
#@+#+#+#+###''''''';''''''''+#@#@#+#+#'''''''''':::;::+###@#+@##,::::::,#,+#,'+:,##,+'+:;;##';,';###:,::;:::;''''''''':,::,,:.`'+#####@@@@@##@#@##'++'+'@@@@@@@@@##@@@@
@#@#@###@@@@'''''''''''''''''@@@#@@#@#'''''''''''':,::+@#@@@@#@#,,:,::,,':##,+#:''#,:++;++#++;,++###:::;::::''''''''''',:,:'##@@###@@@@@@@@##@@@@+'++'''#@@@@@@@@##@@@@
##@#@#####@@''''''''''''''''@#@@#@####'''''''''''':::;###@@@@###''''''''''''++''#+@';:;####+'+'''';;:.,,.,,.''''''''''':,::#@@####@@@@@@@##@@@@@@'''''''@@@@@@#@@@#@@@@
#@@@@####@@##''''''''''''''''@@@@@#@##'''''''''''':,:'#@@#@@@###'''''''''''''''+#@@+,:'#@##+@#@#@#@#@#@@#''''';''''''''.:,:+@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@#@#@#+'+''''##@#@###@##++@@
@@@#@#@@@@#@#''''''''''''''''@@@@#####''''''''''';:::''@#@@@#@#@'''''''''''''''###@'::;+#@###@#@#@@@@@@@@'''''''''''''',,,:#@@@#@#@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@'''+'+'#@@@#@#@#@###@@
##@@@@####@##'''''''''''''''+##@@####@'''''''''''::,:;'@##@@#@##'''''''''''''''@#@@':;'+##@#@#@#@@@@#@#@#'''''''''''''';:,:+#@#@#@@@@@@#@##@@@@@'''+''''@#@#@#@@@##+@@@
###@@#@@@@#@#+''''''''''''''##@#@+####''''''''''':,:;''####@####'''''''''''''''###@':::+##+##@#@@@@@#@@###'''''''''''''',::+@#@+@#@@@@#@#@###@@#+'''+'+'@@#@#@#@###+@@@
##@#@##@@#@#@#''''''''''''''#@#@###@@#''''''''''',:,;''##@@@###@'''''''''''''''@#@@+:::'##@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#@'''''''''''''':,:;#@#@#@@@@#@#@@##@@#@'+'''+'+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@@
##+#+###+#+###''''''''''''''@####+##@#''''''''''':,:;''+###+##@#'''';'''''''';##@@@;;:,+'@+@#@@########+@+#''''''''''''',:::##@+@@@@@@#@#@#@@#@+''+'+'''@@#@#@#@#@@#@@@
@#@+@##+#+@#@+''''''''''''''+@+@#@#@#+'''''''''';:::'''###+#+###''''';'''''';'#@#@@':,:'##@@@######@+@#@+@+'''''''''''''::::+##@#@@#@#@+##@@@#+#'''+++'+@#@#@#@@@@@@@@@
'#+#+';#'#+##@''''''';''';''@+#+#+@#@''''''''''',:,:''';#+@+@#@#'';';';''''''''#@@#,:,,#+#+@@@@@##@#@#@+@+##+''''''';'''::::'+@+@@#@#@#@#@#@@+@'''''++++#@#@@@@@@@@@@@@
@+@'';';#+@##@+''';';';';';@+@###@@##''''''''''':::;;';'+#+####++;'''''''';'''#@##@,:.:;####+#+#+@+#+###+#+@#'''''';''''':::'#+##@@#@#@#@@@@+@#''''++'+'@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@
+#'''';''######'';';''''';'+@#@#@##@+''''''''''':::'''''#+@#@##@+'''''''''''''@@@@#;,,,##@#@@@@#@+@+@###@#@@@'''''''''''';:,;+@+@@#@###@@@@#@#+'+'++'+'++@@@@@@#@+##@@@
@#'''''''+@@#@#''''''''';'+@#@#@###+'''''''''''':::';';''####'#'@''''''''';'''###+@,,,:+####+#+#+##@+@####@###'''''''''+'::,;@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@+@'+'++'+'''+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@
#@'''''''####+#'''';';';''@#@#@#@#''''''''''';';,,:;''''''@@#@#@#'''''''''''''#@@@#:.,,##@@+@#@#@+@#@@@#@@#@##''''''''''',:,;'@#@@+@#@##@#@+@'''''++'+'+'@@@@#@#@+@@@@@
@@'''''''@#@+@'';';'''''''@@@#@#''';',,:;;'';'';:,,''''''''+#+#+@+''';;;;;;':;'+#'+':.;+####+#+#+@####+######+#'''''''''':,,:'#@@#@@@@@@#@+#''''+'''''+'+@@@#@#@#@#@@@@
#@'''''''@@#@+''''';'''''#+###''''''':;;:;,:#,,,:,:;''''''''+#+@#@''',:,,,,,'::,#,#+.+:':';,'.+;:.:,;,;##@#@+@+@''''''''',:,;;'+#++#++'####'+''''''''+'+'@@#@#@@@#@@#@@
@@'''''''#+##''''''''''''@#@''''''''',,;+:;,+:,:,,:'''''''''';@+@@#'',,,,,::#:,,,.#+:;;':';,:'##,:::::'+#+@'@+@#@'''''''',,::::::,:;;::+''''''''''+'+'+'+@###@@@####@+@
#@#'''''''++''''''''''''###'''''''''',,':;:;,,:,:,:''''''''';';'###+',,,,,:,+:;:::##:;,':''.;;##;,;::,+#+@+#+#+@@@''''''':::::::::,::::;''+''+'''+#''+'++#@#@#@@@@@@#@@
@##''''''''''';''';''''##@@'''''''''''''''''':::,,;'''''''''''''+@##+;:';';;;';';::,:,'':+,;:',::;:;:,;##+@+##@##@#'''''';:::::::,::::.;;''''''''##+''''''###@@@@@@##@@
#@##''''''''''''''''''####+'''''''''''''''''''',,,;'''''''''''''+@##@+''''''''''''':,::'###+##@#@######@+@+@#@#@@@#@#'''+;:::,:,,,:::::;'''+'++@#@#@+++++'@#@@@@@@@##@@
@#@##''''''''';''''''@@@#@+''''''''++'@@#@##'+':,::'''''''';';''#@+@+#;'''''''''''':;:.+#@#@#+#####+#+#'#+@#@#@@######'''',::;'''''';';'''''+'##@#@#++'+''#@@@@#@##+@@@
#@#@@#+'''';';';';'+###@@#+';';';#+@#@@#@#@+@+@.:.+++''';';';''+@+#'@+#+#+;';';'''':,:,+@#@##@#@##+@+@#@+@#@@####+@+#+@##',::;;';'';';';';'++@+#+#+@''''';+#@@#@##+#@@@
@####++++';';';''++++#@####;';';+++++++#+#+#'#+,,;'++'+++'';++++'@+###+++++'+'+++++:,,:@#####+@+@+@+#+@+@###@##@+#+#+#'##+,:::;;';'';';++####+#+@#@#+''';''@@@@@@###@@@
####+'+'+'+'+'+++'#++++#@@++;;;++++++++'+++'++#.,,++++++'+++'#++#'@'@+++++'+'+'#++#::,:+@#@@@@+@#@+@+@#@+@@#@@@+@+@+#+##++:,,''#+#++#+++#+#+'+'##@@@#'';';'+@@#@+#+#@#@
@@#+++++++'+++++'+'+++++###++'#'+'++#++++#+#'##,.:;+++++#'+'#++++#+#+++++++++++++++:,,,#@##@@#@#@#@#@+@#@#@##@#@#@+#+####+:,:'#+#+##+#+#+##+#+#+#@@##''''''+@@@#@#@@@@@
#@#++'+'+##'#'+'+'+++++++##+'++#++'#+++'+'++#+#,:,;'++++'#'++++;#+#+++++'+;++#+++'#.:.,+###@+#+@+#+@+@+###@#@#@+@+#+#+++++:,,''#+##+#++###+#'#+######+''''''+@@+'';#@#@
##+++#+++@+@+#'#'+'#++#++##+#'#+#+++#+++'+'++##,,::++++'#'+'##+#'@'#++#'++#+####+@#:,::###@#@+@#@#@#@#@@@@#@+@+@+#+++#++#+:.:'#####@+@@@@##+#+#+######;''+'++++'''''@@@
#++++'#'++#+@+#'+'#++++++++#'#+#+#+#+++'+++'#+#++;;++++#'#+#+@#+@++'##++++'#+#+#@#@.:.,##@#@#@+@#@+@#@@#@#@#@#++#+#+#+##'+:,.++@@@@#@#@@@@##+#+####+#+#'''+'++++'+'++@@
+#+++#'+'#+#+#+#'+'#+#++++#+#+@##+#+#+++'#'++#+#+#++++++#+#+@###+#'+#'+'+'++####+@#:.,:@##@#@+@#@+@#@#@#@@#@#@##+###+##+#++;'+@@@@#@#@@@@@@#######+#+#+'''''';';''''+#+
@+#+#'+'#+@+###+#+#+#++++++#+###+###+++++'+'++#+++++'+'+'+;#+##;#;+'++'+'+:++#+@#+@`:,:+'#'#'''@+#+##@####@+@++'++#+#+#+'#'#+##@@##+@#@#@@#@+######+#+#+'+++'+'+'+'+##@
+#'+'+'+'#+@+@##++'#+++'++#+###+##@##++#'#+#+#+#+#+#+##++#@+@###+#+##+#'#+#+##@@#@+:,::##+@+@'@#@#@#######+#'#'#+####++'++#+##@@##+@#@@@@+##@@####'++++##'';''+'''+'##+
@+#+#'#+#+@#@##+#+#++#+#+#+##@#####+#'+'#+#+#++#++++'+++'#+##@#+#+#++#'#+#+####@@#@`:.:++#+@+@#@#@##@##+##@+@'#+####+#+#'#+##@@@@+@#@@@@@@+@#@###+#+#+###@'+'+'+''+#@#@
+###+#+##@#@#@#+#+#+#+++#+#+@###@@##+#'#+#+####+#+#+#'+'@#####+#+#++#+#+#+##+#+@+@#:,,:'#+@##+@@##@#######+#+#'####+#+#'#+#+#@#@+@+@##@###@#@@@#+#+#+###@##'''+'+'+#+@@
############+#'+'+++'++++#+########+#'#'#+##+#+#+#+#'#+######+#.####+#+###+##'#+@+@.;,:#'###+@##@###@+##@+#+#'++##+#'#'#'#+####+@+####+#+###@###+++++####@+###'++##+#@@
#@#@#@@#@#@#@##+#+#+#+#########@#@#@##+######+#+#+#+#+###@+#'@'##+#+#+#+++##'++@+@#;:::'#+@#@####@#@#@#@#@##+#+####+#+#+#####@#@#@#@@#@#@#@@@@#@+######+@#@#@@@@#####@@
@##@@#+@+#@@'#'#++'++##++#++#+#+#+#;#+#+#+##+#'#+#+#+#+@#'#+#+#+##+#'###+##+#'#'@@@:;,:###@####'#+#+@#@+#+######+#+#+#+#+###@#@#@#@@#@#@@@@#@#@##########@@@@#######@@#
#@##@#@+#+###'#+++#+#+#########@+@+@#######+#+#+#+####+###+@+@+@#+#+####+###+#+##@@,,,:+@@#@#@#@#@#@@@#@@@#+#+#+#+######+#+@+@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@#@@@########@@@@@@@@#@@@@@@
###@##+#+###+#+#+#+#+##+###+##@#@#@#@#######+#+#+####+##@+@+##@@+#+#+####+#'#+#+@@+,,,,#@##+@+@+@###@@@#@#######+########+####@@@@@@+@#@@@@#@#@@######+#@@@@@###@@@#@@@
##@#@+@+#+#+#+#+#+#+##+#+#++'#+#+@+##@###+#'#+##+#++'#'#+#+####++'#+##'#:+'#+####'@.,.:++#'#+#+@####@######+#+#'#+########+@#@@##+##@#@@#@#@#@@@@####+##@#@######@#@#@@
#@####+#+#+#+++#+#+#++#+#+#'#+@+##@#####+#'#+##+#+#'#+#+@+@#@@##'#+##+#+#+#+####@@#,.::##+##@##@#@@####@##+#+#+######+#+#+##@@@####@#@@@##@@@@@@@#######@@@@##@@@##@#@@
#+###+#+#+#+#+###+#+##+#+#'#'@+####@#####'#+####+#'#+#+#+@#@@#@+#+####+#+#+#####@#@,,,;####@@@#@@@@#@#@#;##+#+######+#+####@@#@###@#@@#@###@@@@@#+######@#@####@###@#@@
######+#+#+#####+#+####+#+#+##@#@#@@#@##+#+####+#+####@#@@@@#@#######+###########@@,,:'###@#@@@@#@@@@##@###################@@#@#@@@@@@#####@@@@@@#########@##@@@@###@@@
@#@#@###################+####@#@@@#@###+#+#+####+#+##################+############@.:,'#+###@@@@##@@######################@@@@#@@@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@########@#@#@@@@#####@@
@#@#@#@#@#@#############++###@@@@@@@#@############+###@@@@@@@@########+##########@@.,:'####@@@@@@@@@@#@###################@@@@@#@@@@@@###@@@@#@#@#####+#+@@@@#@######@@
#######@#@###########+#'#+#####@#@#@#@##+######+#####@@@@@##@####################@@,,:;###@#@@@@@@#@#@#@#############+####@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@@@@#@#@#@######@@@@@@#@#@@@@@@
@#@#@###@@@##################@@@#@@@@@################@@@@@#@####################@@:::'####@@@@#@#@#@#@#########+#+######+@+@+@#@@+@+#+@@#@#@#@#@@##+#+#'@@#@###@###@@#
##@######@############++#########@@###++##############@@@@@@#@@@#####+######+#+##@@;,;;#@@@@#@#@#@#@#@###########+#########@###@@@@#@#@@@@@@#@#@@@##@####@@@@@#@#@@@##@
##@####@@@##################@@@###@@##################@@##@#@@@@@###+######+#####@@@##+@#@@#@#@+@#@#@#@#####@##@#####@@#@#@#@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@#@@@@#@#@+@#@@@@#@#@#@@@@@
                                                                                               
 


---
How to cite this:


Points of View at AbeBooks


2 comments :

  1. Hi there, this looks like a very interesting blog. I'm glad you visited me because now I've found you! I would love a scan of the Lilliput Magazine if it’s not too much trouble. You can email me at - books (at) marchhousebooks (dot) com - sorry for the odd way of putting it, but I don’t want to get spammed. Barbara.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks for the visit, Barbara. I'll send the scan now. I've been reading the magazine and it's great fun.

      Delete