Thursday, 25 June 2015

From W. Somerset Maugham to Marie Stopes to Eddie Marsh to Marie Stopes

Marie Stopes, W. Somerset Maugham, Edward Marsh
Marie Stopes, W. Somerset Maugham, Edward Marsh

I know this is such a peculiar title, but nothing can express the conception of this post better. Fellow researchers will understand what I am talking about. You go out to look for something related to your main subject, you find the something and something else which leads you to something something else, and it can go on ad infinitum, not unlike tracing the branching off of a tree. The title is deceptive in its linear development; the tree analogy is much better.

Needless to say, W. Somerset Maugham is my main subject. I was intrigued that there were two letters from him to Marie Stopes in the British Library. At the same time, I have been working on the manuscript of The Summing Up, which leads me to Edward Marsh, proofreader of Maugham's works since Don Fernando, who turns out to be a most absorbing personality. While enjoying Marsh's company, I found out that he wrote about Christabel Aberconway and had some amusing anecdotes about Marie Stopes.

In this myriad of relationships and anecdotes, I find it clearest to follow the chronological order. So we will start with Marie Stopes.

Dr. Marie Stopes


Marie Charlotte Carmichael Stopes (15 October 1880 – 2 October 1958) had a very impressive CV; she must have been a prodigy of some kind. Daughter of professional (in the good sense) and highly qualified parents, both intellectuals, she finished her bachelor degree in two years (I wonder in present day how a bureaucrat would calculate the degree equivalency...) and graduated first class, and was the youngest person in Britain to complete her D.Sc. She got her second doctoral degree in palæobotany in 1904 in the University of Munich. Her interests and expertise ranged from plant palæontology to coal classification to eugenics to women's rights to birth control to marriage to love. She was an author of pamphlets, books, poetry and plays.

For those who are interested in this extraordinary person, there must be a lot of books on her, which I will not focus on.

From the brief glance of her fields of interest and achievements, she was a highly intelligent person. I gather from the little information that I came across that she must be very energetic, devoted, and untiring in bringing the world, filled with commonplace minds, to see things as she did. It is not difficult to imagine the frustrations she must have felt, which in turn may have some effects on the development of her personality.

W. Somerset Maugham's Letters to Marie Stopes


Now, what did Maugham have to do with her?

Nothing intimate of course.

It would appear that she wrote to Maugham to chide him for being vexed with the theatre. Stopes tried her hand in playwriting too, but her productions were didactic and propagandist in nature, precisely those that Maugham had no sympathy with. Her play Vectia was banned, which she was very upset about. Her letter to Maugham could have been an appeal for help, considering Maugham's influence in the theatre and his powerful political connections.

However, her strategy was completely ineffective with Maugham. His reply was curt and any further discussion of the subject was made impossible. He simply told her that her source was stupid to say that he was annoyed by the theatre, after having written nearly thirty plays and worked in it for thirty-five years.

Now, Edward Marsh steps in.

From Marie Stopes to Edward Marsh


Stopes wrote to Maugham in 1933. It was not until May 1940 that Marsh met Stopes. Marsh's relation of his encounters with the latter would shed some light to the exchange between Stopes and Maugham.

Marsh wrote to Christopher Hassall, a good friend to whom he sent long letters incessantly and who eventually became his biographer:
I'm just back from the Poetry Society dinner, which was better than I expected in some ways, as I quite enjoyed it, but not so good in others, as I had hoped for material for a diatribe compounded of Juvenal and P. G. Wodehouse – and very little happened, either to make a fun of or to scarify. I sat between Andrew Young and who do you think, Dr. Marie Stopes, who began by saying that she had been told I didn't like her, rather a good opening, as unless one is forced to prove the contrary, which I did, without the slightest difficulty, so we got on like twin souls. In spite of her blowsy appearance and seemingly ramshackle mentality, she is a remarkable woman. To begin with, it is impossible not to be impressed by finding oneself in contact with one of the four authors (not counting the Holy Ghost) who in the history of the world have sold over a million copies of a "non-fictional" work (the others are Wells's Outline of History: Mein Kampf, which isn't fair, as the sales were compulsory, and some American uplift book she couldn't remember the name of). But I admit this is rather a vulgar recommendation. In addition, she is a serious palaeontologist; she discovered in Japan the remains of an epoch that till then had been unknown. And you remember the Ginko or maiden-hair fern tree at Holker? She found on the coast of Sutherlandshire fossils of an extinct variety of this tree, new to science. Also she has a very real love of poetry, tho' we might not think it impeccably applied – so on the whole I thoroughly enjoyed her company. She says her mother knew the whole of Paradise Lost by heart when she was four, do you believe this? (Hassall 84)

Upon reading this, I could not help thinking of Maugham's reply to Stopes. Supposedly Stopes did the same to Maugham, telling him straight out that she had been told that he did not like the theatre. Unlike Marsh, about whom Maugham on another occasion wrote that he was overflown with the milk of human kindness in his relations with people (Maugham 236), Maugham apparently had no difficulty to contradict her hearsay with consternation without giving her an opening. Her dare did not work or impress Maugham.

Seeing that Marsh was susceptible, Stopes charged. She wrote him the following month, which he dutifully reported to Hassall:
My third visitation is from Dr. Marie Stopes.

     There was an old man of Liskeard
     Who said "It is just as I feared"

She sends me a very sensible but not very distinguished paper called "Real Poetry and Modern Poetry," and also a most extraordinary poem called Ex-Moderns, explaining the aberrations of the poets on obstetrical grounds. I really must send you this performance, but I must keep it till I can make up my mind what to say to her about it, which will be rather difficult. (Hassall 88)

Marsh took up the courage to answer Stopes tactfully, as becoming his character:
I wonder what you'll have thought of Dr. Marie Stopes's poem. I rather liked my answer, in the course of which I said I thought Dryden had gone as far as was expedient in accounting for bad poetry on obstetrical grounds when he said of Shadwell that

     The midwife laid her hand upon his skull,
     With this prophetic blessing: Be thou dull. (Hassall 90)

That is not the end of the story. Marsh was invited to visit her before the end of the month, and Marsh reported to Hassall:
I enjoyed my visit to Dr. Marie Stopes. She is a very remarkable woman, of prodigious vitality and geniality and pugnacity, and as far as I could judge great mental power in her own line, and a well-justified egocentricity. She gave me a commission to get her in touch with Malcolm MacDonald, who she fears is on the point of decreeing the Pasteurization of Milk, which according to her turns it into deadly poison. On the other hand I evaded a poem of 600 lines about love in every sense of the word. She lives in a fine house, with 18th century associations dear to my heart (Fanny Burney etc.) in a glorious situation on the side of the hill opposite Box Hill, with a magnificent view and the most beautiful woods imaginable.

She adores the house and the trees and the flower-garden, yet I don't think I ever met with anyone so completely devoid of taste. For instance, in a pretty well-proportioned sitting-room she has pasted over the mantlepiece two enormous spires of garish paper hollyhocks.

[...]

Dr. Stopes showed me an article she has written about Maurice Hewlett, with bits of his letters to her. There was one sentence bearing on the 'Animus Anima' problem (which seems now so far away) –

"I should say revision always led to improvement. The Soul's ear is a faulty instrument. It gains help from the mind." (Hassall 96)

Marsh's reluctant and ambiguous reply did not have any effect on Stopes's determination:
I told you I thought I'd got out of diabolizing Marie Stopes's new poem, but no, the proof arrived this morning. It's really very difficult. She's like a volcano, in fact I found the most complimentary way of telling her what I thought was to compare the poem to a torrent of hot lava going straight ahead but not looking where it was going – her grammar, her mixed metaphors, her choice, or rather no-choice, of words, her travesty of Swinburnian fluency and sonority, all combine in a turgid onrush in which there are occasional beauties and an extraordinary rather impressive effect of passionate absurdity. The flowers sing their Chorus with a pair of lovers standing on them (this is made perfectly clear, the young couple are

     Rooted upon our faces, standing fast)

so how they contrive to sing is a puzzle. I made up my mind not to poke fun, but of course I couldn't stick to this. I came to a passage where Victorious Life "cries Vinco to the herald sky."Vinco sounded like a patent medicine – it does, doesn't it? – and that she had better say Vici. I'm afraid I've lost her for life. One of her specialities is making allusions to modern science, for instance:

     But human fate unrolled in many darks
     Fulfilled itself in symbols xylons keep,

and there's a footnote that "in the internal structure of flower, plant and tree the delicate long pipes carrying water have walls thickened with ligniss and are called xylon. In bulk this forms the greater part of what we commonly call wood; when pulped it is used for the making of paper." Isn't that a dainty dish to set before the reader of a love poem? (Hassall 105)

Marsh's milk of human kindness seemed to be running out at last. Stopes went to tea at his place shortly after:
Dr. Marie Stopes came to tea the same afternoon. She was very jolly as usual. I wonder if she is quite sane. She told me that when she started her campaign for Birth Control, Cardinal Bourne organized a set of attempts on her life – that he actually succeeded in having her elder son murdered before her eyes, and only just failed with the second. He introduced a nurse into the household, with a forged testimonial from the Bishop of Birmingham. The baby was lying under a cedar tree in the garden – fortunately Dr. Stopes looked out of the window and saw the nurse standing over it in the attitude of Claudius over Hamlet's father, in act to administer the hebedon – so she rushed out in the nick of time to dash it from her hand and dismiss her with a month's salary in lieu of notice. Do you believe this? I have my doubts. Now the R. Catholics have come round, and published a pamphlet putting into the mouth of Our Lord a sermon advocating Birth Control in language borrowed from one of her own books. (Hassall 107)

Somehow after that, the quick friendship must have cooled down, and we do not hear about her until five years later:
I went to the Poetry Society this afternoon for a celebration of Alfred Douglas – an address by Dr. Marie Stopes, Evan Tredegar in the chair, and poems recited "by the Most Noble the Marquess of Queensberry" (so ran the invitation). I thought they all over-reached themselves. A.D.'s sonnets are finely finished and bejewelled, one might say that they are as good as the second-best of Rossetti's, with the arrière-pensée that Rossetti's were written first. But here was Evan saying that posterity would rank him with Shelley and Keats, and Dr. Marie (she called him Lord Arlfred) that his sonnets were the best since Shakespeare's. How about Milton and Wordsworth? Ld Q. declaimed them with much vigour, exploding all the consonants in a way which made them sound rather cross. Evan said it was the fire and verve inherent in the Douglas family coming out. (Hassall 340–1)

One wonders about Maugham's wisdom after all in the human character. He certainly saved himself from quite a bit of trouble.

From Maugham to Stopes


Now we are back to the second letter from Maugham to Stopes.

Stopes wrote again, attaching a pamphlet that she had penned, presumably on birth control or eugenics, in 1953, asking him to write something about it. Maugham answered that he was too old to be preoccupied with subjects that had no immediate concerns to him. He would read the pamphlet when he had recovered from his trip to Athens, but he would not write anything about it.

It would seem that Stopes's solicitude left Maugham unperturbed.

Edward Marsh and W. Somerset Maugham


Marsh appeared to be a most charming character; together with Christabel Aberconway, I am very thankful for getting to know them through Maugham. I hope to write more about Eddie Marsh in future posts. His involvement with Maugham's literary productions since Don Fernando was significant and he was delightful in his style and humour. I have already learnt a lot through his "diabolization" of Maugham's proofs.

Works Cited


Hassall, Christopher. Ambrosia and Small Beer. The Record of a Correspondence between Edward Marsh and Christopher Hassall. London: Longman, 1964. Print.

Maugham, W. Somerset. "Eddie Marsh." A Traveller in Romance. Uncollected Writings 1901–1964. W. Somerset Maugham. Ed. John Whitehead. London: Anthony Blond, 1984. Print.

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